Aggression Replacement Training® (ART®)

Note: The ART® program was not responsive to the CEBC's inquiry. The following information was obtained from publicly available sources.

About This Program

Target Population: Chronically aggressive children and adolescents ages 12-17

For organizations that serve children ages: 12 – 17

Program Overview

Aggression Replacement Training® is a cognitive-behavioral intervention to help children and adolescents improve social skill competence and moral reasoning, better manage anger, and reduce aggressive behavior. The program specifically targets chronically aggressive children and adolescents ages 12-17. The program consists of 10 weeks (30 sessions) of intervention training, and is divided into three components—social skills training, anger-control training, and training in moral reasoning. Clients attend a one-hour session in each of these components each week. Incremental learning, reinforcement techniques, and guided group discussions enhance skill acquisition, and reinforce the lessons in the curriculum.

Essential Components

Program Delivery

Education and Training

Education and Training Resources

Publicly available information indicates there is a manual that describes how to implement this program, and there is some training available for this program.
See contact info below.

Relevant Published, Peer-Reviewed Research

This program is rated a "3 - Promising Research Evidence" on the Scientific Rating Scale based on the published, peer-reviewed research available. The practice must have at least one study utilizing some form of control (e.g., untreated group, placebo group, matched wait list study) establishing the practice's benefit over the placebo, or found it to be comparable to or better than an appropriate comparison practice. Please see the Scientific Rating Scale for more information.

Child Welfare Outcome: Child/Family Well-Being

Nugent, W. R., Bruley, C., & Allen, P. (1998). The effects of Aggression Replacement Training on antisocial behavior in a runaway shelter. Research on Social Work Practice, 8(6), 637-656. doi:10.1177/104973159800800602

Type of Study: Interrupted time series design
Number of Participants: 522

Population:

  • Age — Mean=14.9 years
  • Race/Ethnicity — 77% White, 18.4% African American, 2.5% Latino, 0.4% Asian, and 1.7% Other
  • Gender — 54% Female
  • Status — Participants were adolescents living in a runaway shelter.

Location/Institution: Tennessee

Summary: (To include comparison groups, outcomes, measures, notable limitations)
A field study was conducted to test the effect of Aggression Replacement Training® (ART®) on antisocial behavior in a runaway shelter. The case records of adolescents who stayed in a runaway shelter over a 519-day period were reviewed and measures of antisocial behavior obtained. The results suggested that the commencement of the ART® program was associated with a 20% decrease in the rate of antisocial behavior and a 17% decrease in the daily number of antisocial behavior incidents. Limitations include the lack of a control or comparison group.

Length of postintervention follow-up: None.

Nugent, W. R., Bruley, C., & Allen, P. (1999). The effects of Aggression Replacement Training on male and female antisocial behavior in a runaway shelter. Research on Social Work Practice, 9(4), 466-482. doi:10.1177/104973159900900404

Type of Study: Interrupted time series design
Number of Participants: 522

Population:

  • Age — Mean=14.9 years
  • Race/Ethnicity — 77% White, 18.4% African American, 2.5% Latino, 0.4% Asian, and 1.7% Other
  • Gender — 54% Female
  • Status — Participants were adolescents living in a runaway shelter.

Location/Institution: Tennessee

Summary: (To include comparison groups, outcomes, measures, notable limitations)
Note: This paper uses the same study sample as Nugent, et al. (1998). A field study was conducted to test the effect of Aggression Replacement Training® (ART®) on male and female antisocial behavior in a runaway shelter. The case records of adolescents who stayed in a runaway shelter over a 519-day period were reviewed and measures of antisocial behavior obtained. Results suggested that the implementation of the ART® was associated with a decrease in male and female antisocial behavior in the shelter and that the effect on male antisocial behavior depended on the number of males in the shelter. Limitations include the lack of a control or comparison group and concerns about staff reporting of antisocial behavior.

Length of postintervention follow-up: None.

Gundersen, K., & Svartdal, F. (2006). Aggression Replacement Training in Norway: Outcome evaluation of 11 Norwegian student projects. Scandanavian Journal of Educational Research, 50(1), 63-81. doi:10.1080/00313830500372059

Type of Study: Nonequivalent control groups design (study was planned as a randomized controlled trail, but randomization was not possible for all cases)
Number of Participants: 65

Population:

  • Age — Boys - Mean=12.6 years; Girls – Mean=14.1 years
  • Race/Ethnicity — Not Specified
  • Gender — 49 Boys and 16 Girls
  • Status — Participants were children and young people with varying degrees of behavioral problems.

Location/Institution: Norway

Summary: (To include comparison groups, outcomes, measures, notable limitations)
Eleven groups of students received a 24-session intervention based on Aggression Replacement Training® (ART®). Subjects were assigned to either ART® or standard social and educational services. Measures utilized include the Child Behavior Checklist for 6-18 (CBCL/6-18), the Child and Adolescent Disruptive Behavior Inventory 2.3 (CADBI), the Social Skills Rating System (SSRS), the How I Think Questionnaire, and a project developed problem behavior questionnaire. Results indicate that the ART® group had significant improvement following the intervention, both in terms of increased social skills and reduced behavioral problems; in contrast, the comparison group did not generally indicate improvement. Limitations include small sample size, incomplete randomization of participants, and lack of follow-up.

Length of postintervention follow-up: None.

Hornsveld, R. H., Kraaimaat, F. W., Muris, P., Zwets, A. J., & Kanters, T. (2015). Aggression Replacement Training for violent young men in a forensic psychiatric outpatient clinic. Journal of Interpersonal Violence, 30(18), 3174-3191. doi:10.1177/0886260514555007

Type of Study: Pretest-posttest study
Number of Participants: 62

Population:

  • Age — 15-21 years (Mean=17.35 years)
  • Race/Ethnicity — 100% Dutch
  • Gender — 100% Male
  • Status — Participants were violent young men in a forensic psychiatric outpatient clinic.

Location/Institution: Rotterdam (Netherlands)

Summary: (To include comparison groups, outcomes, measures, notable limitations)
The effects of Aggression Replacement Training (ART) were explored in a group of Dutch violent young men who were obliged by the court to follow a treatment program in a forensic psychiatric outpatient clinic. Measures utilized included the Psychopathy Checklist–Revised (PCL-R), the NEO Five-Factor Inventory (NEO-FFI), the Picture-Frustration Study (PFS-AV), the Aggression Questionnaire (AQ), the Novaco Anger Scale–Provocation Inventory (NAS-PI), the Inventory of Interpersonal Situations (IIS) and the State-Trait Anger Scale (STAS). Results indicated that the patients who completed the therapy scored significantly lower on psychopathy than the patients who dropped out. The training produced significant decreases in physical aggression and social anxiety and showed trends toward a decline in self-reported hostility, general aggression, and anger. After the training, the patients scored comparably with a reference group on measures of hostility and aggressive behavior. Limitations include the lack of randomization of participants, small sample size, and lack of follow-up.

Length of postintervention follow-up: None.

Kaya, F., & Buzlu, S. (2016). Effects of Aggression Replacement Training on problem solving, anger, and aggressive behaviour among adolescents with criminal attempts in Turkey: A quasi-experimental study. Archives of Psychiatric Nursing, 30(6), 729-735. doi:10.1016/j.apnu.2016.07.001

Type of Study: Pretest-posttest with control group
Number of Participants: 65

Population:

  • Age — 14-17 years
  • Race/Ethnicity — 100% Turkish
  • Gender — Not specified
  • Status — Participants were incarcerated adolescents.

Location/Institution: Istanbul, Turkey

Summary: (To include comparison groups, outcomes, measures, notable limitations)
This study determined the effectiveness of Aggression Replacement Training (ART) on problem solving, anger, and aggressive behavior among adolescents with criminal attempts in Turkey. Measures utilized included the Aggression Questionnaire and the Social Problem Solving Inventor - Revised Short Form, the Trait Anger and Anger Expression Scales, and the Aggression Questionnaire and the Social Problem Solving Inventor – Revised Short Form (SPSI-RS). Results indicated that after the intervention, the experimental group showed significantly decreased trait anger levels, increased anger control scores, decreased physical aggression scores, decreased hostility scores, and increased social problem solving scores. Increased anger control scores were found to be significant when compared with the control group. Limitations include the lack of randomization of participants, small sample size, and lack of follow-up.

Length of postintervention follow-up: None.

Additional References

Glick, B., & Gibbs, J. (2011). Aggression Replacement Training®: A comprehensive intervention for aggressive youth. Third Edition--Revised and Expanded. Champaign, IL: Research Press.

Contact Information

Dr. Barry Glick
Website: aggressionreplacementtraining.com
Email:
Phone: (518) 229-7933

Date Research Evidence Last Reviewed by CEBC: June 2017

Date Program Content Last Reviewed by Program Staff: March 2016

Date Program Originally Loaded onto CEBC: December 2013