Beyond Violence: A Program for Criminal Justice-Involved Women (BV)

Scientific Rating:
NR
Not able to be Rated
See scale of 1-5
Child Welfare System Relevance Level:
Medium
See descriptions of 3 levels

About This Program

The information in this program outline is provided by the program representative and edited by the CEBC staff. Beyond Violence: A Program for Criminal Justice-Involved Women (BV) has been reviewed by the CEBC in the area of: Anger Management Treatment (Adult), but lacks the necessary research evidence to be given a Scientific Rating.

Target Population: Women in criminal justice settings (jails, prisons, and community corrections) with histories of anger, aggression and/or violence

Brief Description

BV is a manualized curriculum for women in criminal justice settings (jails, prisons, and community corrections) with histories of anger, aggression and/or violence. It deals with the violence and trauma they have experienced, as well as the violence they may have committed. It's based on a four-level model of violence prevention which considers the complex interplay between individual, relationship, community, and societal factors. This is a 20-session (40-hour) intervention that consists of a facilitator guide, participant workbook, and DVD. The facilitator's manual is a step-by-step guide for running groups and includes the DVD, What I Want My Words To Do To You by Eve Ensler. BV utilizes a variety of therapeutic strategies (e.g., psycho-education, role playing, mindfulness activities, cognitive-behavioral restructuring, and grounding skills for trauma triggers).

Program Goals:

The goals of Beyond Violence: A Program for Criminal Justice-Involved Women (BV) are:

  • Decrease violent outbursts
  • Decrease depression
  • Increase self-efficacy
  • Stabilize recovery
  • Increase understanding of trauma
  • Increase appropriate expression of anger
  • Essential Components

    The essential components of Beyond Violence: A Program for Criminal Justice-Involved Women (BV) include:

    • Designed as a group intervention and can be adapted for use with individuals
    • Designed to include 6 to 10 women with one facilitator (however, co-facilitation is highly recommended)
    • Curriculum should ideally be implemented sequentially in closed groups or individual sessions
    • Four modules with specific topic areas for each of the 19 sessions, plus an Orientation Session
      • Module A: Self (6 sessions with a total of 22 activities):
        • Thinking Our Thoughts
        • Feeling Our Feelings
        • Violence and Trauma in Our Lives
        • The Effects of Trauma
        • Women and Anger
        • Understanding Ourselves
      • Module B: Relationships (5 sessions with a total of 15 activities):
        • Our Families
        • Communication
        • Power and Control
        • Conflict Resolution
        • Creating Our Relationships
      • Module C: Community (4 sessions with a total of 13 activities):
        • My Community
        • The Importance of Safety
        • Creating Community
        • The Power of Community
      • Module D: Society (4 sessions with a total of 9 activities):
        • Society and Violence
        • Creating Change
        • Transforming Our Lives
        • Honoring Ourselves and Our Community
    • A community version of the curricula entitled Beyond Anger and Violence: A Program for Women (BAV) is available

    Adult Services

    Beyond Violence: A Program for Criminal Justice-Involved Women (BV) directly provides services to adults (regardless of whether they are parents or caregivers) and addresses the following:

    • Anger, violence, and aggression

    Delivery Settings

    This program is typically conducted in a(n):

    • Community Agency
    • Outpatient Clinic
    • Residential Care Facility

    Homework

    Beyond Violence: A Program for Criminal Justice-Involved Women (BV) includes a homework component:

    Women have a journal to process their group experience and practice skills.

    Languages

    Beyond Violence: A Program for Criminal Justice-Involved Women (BV) does not have materials available in a language other than English.

    Resources Needed to Run Program

    The typical resources for implementing the program are:

  • Facilitator’s guide
  • Flip chart
  • Workbooks
  • Room with chairs in a circle
  • A group facilitator
  • Art supplies for collage work
  • Minimum Provider Qualifications

    There are no minimum provider qualifications. This has been implemented by a range of educational levels from PhDs to peer educators.

    Education and Training Resources

    There is a manual that describes how to implement this program, and there is training available for this program.

    Training Contact:
    Training is obtained:

    Training can be provided onsite. There are also trainings available at various sites in California and other parts of the U.S.

    Number of days/hours:

    Generally 2 or 3 days

    Additional Resources:

    There currently are additional qualified resources for training:

    There are also other certified trainers available by contacting the above.

    Relevant Published, Peer-Reviewed Research

    This program has been reviewed and it was determined that this program lacks the type of published, peer-reviewed research that meets the CEBC criteria for a scientific rating of 1 – 5. Therefore, the program has been given the classification of "NR - Not able to be Rated." It was reviewed because it was identified by the topic expert as a program being used in the field, or it is being marketed and/or used in California with children receiving services from child welfare or related systems and their parents/caregivers. Some programs that are not rated may have published, peer-reviewed research that does not meet the above stated criteria or may have eligible studies that have not yet been published in the peer-reviewed literature. For more information on the "NR - Not able to be Rated" classification, please see the Scientific Rating Scale.

    Child Welfare Outcome: Child/Family Well-Being

    Show relevant research...

    Kubiak, S. P., Kim, W. J., Fedock, G., & Bybee, D. (2012). Assessing short-term outcomes of an intervention for women convicted of violent crimes. Journal for the Society for Social Work and Research, 3(3), 197-212.

    Type of Study: Pretest/posttest
    Number of Participants: 35

    Population:

    • Age — 33-38 years
    • Race/Ethnicity — 57% White, 40% Black, and 3% Native American
    • Gender — 100% Female
    • Status — Participants were individuals incarcerated females with violent offenses in the Residential Substance Abuse Treatment (RSAT) unit of state prison.

    Location/Institution: Not Specified

    Summary: (To include comparison groups, outcomes, measures, notable limitations)
    This study examines the effects of Beyond Violence with incarcerated females with violent offenses in the Residential Substance Abuse Treatment (RSAT) unit of state prison. Measures utilized include the Substance Abuse Subtle Screening Inventory (SASSI), Patient Health Questionnaire (PHQ), The Short Screening Scale for DSM-IV Posttraumatic Stress Disorder-Modified Version, The K6, the Buss-Warren Aggression Questionnaire (AQ), the Revised Expressions of Aggression Scale (Revised Expagg), and the Self-Appraisal Questionnaire (SAQ). Group 1 consisted of 13 women, including five with life sentences, who met criteria in the first RSAT cohort. Groups 2 and 3 were women that entered RSAT 3 months later in the second cohort: Group 2 consisted of 10 women, including one with a life sentence; and Group 3 consisted of 11 women, all labeled as having a dual diagnosis, including two with life sentences. Results indicate symptoms attributed to mental health disorders decreased significantly by the end of the intervention, with the largest effect attributable to anxiety symptoms. Limitations include lack of randomizations of participants, small sample size, and attrition.

    Length of postintervention follow-up: None.

    Kubiak, S., Kim, W. J., Fedock, G., & Bybee, D. (2015). Testing a violence-prevention intervention for incarcerated women using a randomized control trial. Research on Social Work Practice, 25(3), 334-348.

    Type of Study: Randomized controlled trial
    Number of Participants: 22

    Population:

    • Age — Mean=34 years
    • Race/Ethnicity — 64% Black, 32% White, and 4% Other
    • Gender — 100% Female
    • Status — Participants were individuals incarcerated females with violent offenses in the Residential Substance Abuse Treatment (RSAT) unit of state prisons.

    Location/Institution: Midwestern U. S.

    Summary: (To include comparison groups, outcomes, measures, notable limitations)
    This study’s purpose is to assess the efficacy of Beyond Violence (BV) on testing the feasibility and efficacy of the intervention in a new setting (i.e., general population vs. specialized treatment unit). Eligible women were randomly assigned to treatment as usual (TAU) and the experimental condition (BV). Measures utilized include the Substance Abuse Subtle Screening Inventory (SASSI), Patient Health Questionnaire (PHQ), The Short Screening Scale for Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fourth Edition, PTSD, and the State and Trait Anger scale (STAXI-2). Results indicate positive changes for both groups. Significant between-group differences favor BV on only 3 of the 14 measures of anger that were examined. BV is cost-effective with only 20 sessions compared to 44 sessions for TAU. Limitations include small participant size, selection bias, and findings are specific to the population of this study, women who were convicted of violent offenses and were diagnosed to have substance abuse dependency by the SASSI.

    Length of postintervention follow-up: None.

    References

    Covington, S. S. (2013). Understanding and applying gender differences in recovery. In A. L. O’Neil & J. Lucas (Eds.), DAWN Drugs and Alcohol Women Network: Promoting a gender responsive approach to addiction (pp. 339-362). Turin, Italy: United Nations Interregional Crime and Justice Research Institute (UNICRI).

    White, W. L. (2014). Advocacy for gender-specific addiction treatment and recovery support: An interview with Dr. Stephanie Covington. Retrieved from http://www.williamwhitepapers.com/pr/2014%20Dr.%20Stephanie%20Covington%20Interview.pdf

    Contact Information

    Name: Stephanie S. Covington, PhD, LCSW
    Agency/Affiliation: Center for Gender and Justice
    Website: www.stephaniecovington.com/trainings-and-workshops.php
    Email:
    Phone: (858) 454-8528
    Fax: (858) 454-8598

    Date Research Evidence Last Reviewed by CEBC: October 2015

    Date Program Content Last Reviewed by Program Staff: October 2015

    Date Program Originally Loaded onto CEBC: November 2015