Exchange Parent Aide
About This Program
Target Population: Families must have at least one child age birth through 12 years in the home (services may also be offered prenatally), be considered at-risk for abuse (either through presence of dynamics common in abusive families or the presence of substantiated abuse or neglect), and be willing to participate in services
For children/adolescents ages: 0 – 12
For parents/caregivers of children ages: 0 – 12
Exchange Parent Aide program consists of trained, professionally supervised individuals (volunteer or paid) who provide supportive and educational in-home services to families at risk of child abuse and neglect. Agencies elect to use paid and/or volunteer Parent Aides to provide services based on their community needs and resources. Services are strength-based and family-centered. Auxiliary services enhance service delivery (e.g., group-based parenting classes). Model components include:
- An Initial Needs Assessment (INA) describing family dynamics, patterns of coping, abuse histories, and immediate needs
- A family treatment plan focusing on the program’s four goal areas:
- Child safety
- Problem solving skills
- Parenting skills
- Social support
- Matching families with a professionally trained and supervised Parent Aide who provides weekly home visits.
Programs select parenting curricula based on the needs of the families with a priority on using curricula with an evidence-base, when available. An extensive accreditation process is required of Exchange Parent Aide programs.
The goals of Exchange Parent Aide are:
- Assure child safety
- Improve parenting skills
- Improve problem solving skills
- Enhance social supports
The essential elements of Exchange Parent Aide include:
- The relationship between the family and the Parent Aide
- The formation of model was highly influenced by the theory of personality development formulated by Erik Erikson.
- Parent Aides receive training not to “analyze” parents and families or conjecture what stage they might have missed in life, but to increase awareness of how past life experiences impact decisions and behaviors today and to increase ability to communicate in ways that parents and children can understand.
- Caseload sizes are limited.
- Services are voluntary.
- Provides secondary and tertiary prevention services to families at risk of or having experienced child abuse and neglect.
- Initiation of Services:
- Referral sources are selected by individual programs based on needs of community. Self-referrals are accepted.
- Families may enter the program at any time prenatally or with a child from birth through age 12.
- All families participate in an Initial Needs Assessment.
- Families are matched with a Parent Aide.
- A Family Plan, to guide services, is developed with all families.
- On-going Services:
- Initially, families receive in-home services once or twice a week, depending on needs.
- Weekly visits continue for up to several months. Frequency may be reduced when success in meeting program goals is demonstrated.
- Services continue long-term, recommended for nine to twelve months.
- Services are provided with sensitivity to cultural differences.
- Supervision occurs at a minimum of one hour per week.
- Case decisions are discussed with supervisors or treatment team.
- Cases are reviewed at least quarterly by supervisors or case work teams.
- Case closures are discussed with supervisor or case work teams.
- Deficiencies in quality, timeliness, or service are documented and improvement plans are developed.
- Professional staff is available 24 hours per day to the family to respond to crises.
- All programs complete an extensive accreditation process.
- All of the staff attends a mandatory initial training with on-going training requirements.
- All Exchange Parent Aide programs are supported by the National Exchange Club. This allows national staff to provide many services to programs free or at minimal cost. These services include:
- An annual national training symposium
- Initial Exchange Parent Aide training
- Research and data collection systems
- Resource materials for use with families
Exchange Parent Aide directly provides services to children/adolescents and addresses the following:
- Any development or behavioral issues
Exchange Parent Aide directly provides services to parents/caregivers and addresses the following:
- Children’s development or behavioral issues
- Parenting behaviors leading to child abuse or neglect
- Family issues creating stress for parents/caregivers
- Environmental issues creating stress for parents/caregivers
Services Involve Family/Support Structures:
This program involves the family or other support systems in the individual's treatment: The program attempts to work with all family members/people living in the family home, and continuously works to connect the family to outside support systems.
The program standard is 1 to 2 home visits per week, with each lasting 1 to 2 hours. Telephone contact occurs between home visits. Parents have telephone access to professional staff 24 hours a day, 7 days a week.
Recommended duration is 9-12 months with the average being 11 months.
This program is typically conducted in a(n):
- Adoptive Home
- Birth Family Home
This program does not include a homework component.
Exchange Parent Aide has materials available in a language other than English:
For information on which materials are available in this language, please check on the program's website or contact the program representative (contact information is listed at the bottom of this page).
Resources Needed to Run Program
The typical resources for implementing the program are:
Master’s level Director/Supervisor staff, trained Parent Aides, ability for staff to attend initial/on-going training/training space, cell phone, Parent Aides need personal transportation, computer, ability to document in files and store files securely, 1 full-time Supervisor per 5-6 full-time Parent Aides, and travel expense reimbursement (mileage) for home visitors
Education and Training
Prerequisite/Minimum Provider Qualifications
Director/Administrator - Master’s level, Program manager/supervisor - Bachelor’s in human service field, Parent Aides - college level or para-professional
Education and Training Resources
There is a manual that describes how to implement this program , and there is training available for this program.
- Genevieve Stults, Director
Child Abuse Prevention Services
dept.: National Exchange Club
phone: (800) 924-2643
Training is obtained:
National Headquarters in Toledo/Regional/On-site
Number of days/hours:
Two days/15 hours
There currently are additional qualified resources for training:
Training occurs locally at program sites through monthly in-service trainings, weekly supervision, and with Parent Aides having 24/7 access to supervisors. Local training also occurs through local conferences, universities and various other institutions. A free national training symposium is offered annually to all programs. The master’s level national staff is available to provide training, on-site or via the internet and also provide free case/program consultation.
The program representative did not provide information about pre-implementation materials.
Formal Support for Implementation
The program representative did not provide information about formal support for implementation of Exchange Parent Aide.
The program representative did not provide information about fidelity measures of Exchange Parent Aide.
Implementation Guides or Manuals
The program representative did not provide information about implementation guides or manuals for Exchange Parent Aide.
Research on How to Implement the Program
The program representative did not provide information about research conducted on how to implement Exchange Parent Aide.
Relevant Published, Peer-Reviewed Research
This program is rated a "3 - Promising Research Evidence" on the Scientific Rating Scale based on the published, peer-reviewed research available. The practice must have at least one study utilizing some form of control (e.g., untreated group, placebo group, matched wait list study) establishing the practice's benefit over the placebo, or found it to be comparable to or better than an appropriate comparison practice. Please see the Scientific Rating Scale for more information.
Child Welfare Outcome: Safety
Harder, J. (2005). Prevention of child abuse and neglect: An evaluation of a home visitation parent aide program using recidivism data. Research on Social Work Practice, 15(4), 246-256.
Type of Study:
Quasi-experimental retrospective cohort study
Number of Participants: 246
- Age — Mean=26.8 years
- Race/Ethnicity — 45% African American, 35% White, and 18% Hispanic
- Gender — 96% Female
- Status — Adults that have been referred to Child Protective Services (CPS) due to child abuse and neglect.
Location/Institution: Dallas, TX
Summary: (To include comparison groups, outcomes, measures, notable limitations)
This study examined the prevention of child abuse and neglect through an evaluation of the Exchange Parent Aide program. The sample for this research study was composed of all families referred to the Exchange Parent Aide program from Child Protective Services (CPS) at the Child Abuse Prevention Center in Dallas, Texas, from 1993 through 1999. The study compared abuse recidivism rates for those parents who completed, dropped out, or refused to participate in the Exchange Parent Aide program. Parents who completed the Exchange Parent Aide program had fewer subsequent, substantiated reports to child protective services of child abuse or neglect than those parents who refused to participate or dropped out of the Exchange Parent Aide program. Limitations include non-randomization, lack of control or comparison group, concerns about treatment integrity over time, and population generalizability.
Length of postintervention follow-up: Not specified.
Guterman, J., Tabone, J. K., Bryan, G. M., Taylor, C. A., Napoleon-Hanger, C., & Banman, A. (2013). Examining the effectiveness of home-based parent aide services to reduce risk for physical child abuse and neglect: Six-month findings from a randomized clinical trial. Child Abuse & Neglect. Advance online publication. doi: 10.1016/j.chiabu.2013.03.006
Type of Study:
Randomized controlled trial
Number of Participants: 138
- Age — Mean=29.6 years
- Race/Ethnicity — 62.4% White, 30.7% Black, and 6.9% Other
- Gender — Not specified
- Status — Participants were from six parent aide program sites of the National Exchange Club Foundation (NECF).
Location/Institution: Southeast region of the USA
Summary: (To include comparison groups, outcomes, measures, notable limitations)
This study examined the effectiveness of the Exchange Parent Aide model in reducing physical abuse and neglect risk in high-risk parents. Families were randomly assigned to receive Exchange Parent Aide plus case management services (PA+CM) or case management services only (CM Only). Measure were collected at baseline and after 6 months of services and included the Parent-Child Conflict Tactics Scales (CTS-PC), the Child Well-Being Scales (CWBS), the Mother-Child Neglect Scale (MCNS), Parenting Stress Index-Short Form (PSI-SF), and the Brief Symptom Inventory (BSI). Results indicate mothers receiving PA+CM services reported statistically significant improvements from baseline to six-months in self-reported indicators of physical child abuse risk, as well as improvements on parental stress, mastery, depression, and anxiety, whereas mothers receiving CM Only services did not. The slopes of such observed changes across groups, however, were not found to be statistically significantly different. No discernible improvements were found with regard to indicators of risk for child neglect. Limitations include the relatively small sample size and that subjects received approximately half of the typical Exchange Parent Aide service dosage.
Length of postintervention follow-up: None.
No reference materials are currently available for Exchange Parent Aide.
Date Research Evidence Last Reviewed by CEBC: September 2016
Date Program Content Last Reviewed by Program Staff: April 2013
Date Program Originally Loaded onto CEBC: April 2013