Eye Movement Desensitization and Reprocessing (EMDR) [Trauma Treatment - Client-Level Interventions (Child & Adolescent)]

Scientific Rating:
1
Well-Supported by Research Evidence
See scale of 1-5
Child Welfare System Relevance Level:
Medium
See descriptions of 3 levels

About This Program

The information in this program outline is provided by the program representative and edited by the CEBC staff. Eye Movement Desensitization and Reprocessing (EMDR) [Trauma Treatment - Client-Level Interventions (Child & Adolescent)] has been rated by the CEBC in the area of: Trauma Treatment - Client-Level Interventions (Child & Adolescent).

Target Population: Children and adolescents who have experienced trauma; research has been conducted on posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD), posttraumatic stress, phobias, and other mental health disorders

For children/adolescents ages: 2 – 17

Brief Description

EMDR therapy is an 8-phase psychotherapy treatment that was originally designed to alleviate the symptoms of trauma. During the EMDR trauma processing phases, guided by standardized procedures, the client attends to emotionally disturbing material in brief sequential doses that include the client’s beliefs, emotions, and body sensations associated with the traumatic event while simultaneously focusing on an external stimulus. Therapist directed bilateral eye movements are the most commonly used external stimulus, but a variety of other stimuli including hand-tapping and audio bilateral stimulation are often used. EMDR is also highlighted on the CEBC website in the Trauma Treatment (Adult) topic area, click here to go to that entry.

Program Goals:

The overall goals of Eye Movement Desensitization and Reprocessing (EMDR) [Trauma Treatment - Client-Level Interventions (Child & Adolescent)] are:

  • Target the past events that trigger disturbance
  • Target the current situations that trigger disturbance
  • Determine the skills and education needed for future functioning
  • Reduce subjective distress
  • Strengthen positive beliefs
  • Eliminate negative physical responses
  • Promote learning and integration so that the trauma memory is changed to a source of resilience

Essential Components

The essential components of Eye Movement Desensitization and Reprocessing (EMDR) [Trauma Treatment - Client-Level Interventions (Child & Adolescent)] include:

  • EMDR therapy is guided by the Adaptive Information Processing (AIP) model, which is based on the theory that symptoms arise from maladaptively stored memories that include the thoughts, beliefs, emotions, body sensations, and behavioral responses that were experienced at the time of the traumatic event.
  • Using standardized procedures, EMDR therapy accesses the stored memories, activates the brain’s information system and, through reprocessing, helps move the disturbing information to adaptive resolution. As an integrative psychotherapy driven by AIP theory, EMDR incorporates and is compatible with elements of diverse treatment interventions.
  • When working with child and adolescent clients, EMDR integrates play therapy and other efficacious treatment tools for working with children. EMDR therapy addresses past events, present disturbance, and future needs. Guided by the theoretical underpinnings of AIP, a therapeutic relationship is established, the client is comprehensively assessed and prepared for processing. Based upon the AIP case conceptualization, focused target assessment and memory reprocessing are conducted throughout the complete eight-phases of EMDR therapy. Therefore, even though some elements of the goals and objectives of the phases of EMDR may be evident in other treatment modalities, it is the aggregate of the theory, case conceptualization, and accurate implementation of this integrative psychotherapy that truly defines EMDR therapy.
  • EMDR therapy consists of 8 phases of treatment with specific goals and objectives for completion of each phase.
    • The first phase is Client History and Treatment Planning during which the therapist assesses the clinical landscape, evaluates the client's readiness for memory processing, and develops a treatment plan.
    • Afterwards, during the Preparation Phase the therapist ensures that the client has adequate methods of handling emotional distress including self-soothing and calming skills, and that the client is in a relatively stable state. If further stabilization is required, or if additional skills are needed, therapy focuses on developing these needed skills for continuing with trauma reprocessing. During this phase, the therapist also reviews informed consent to assess for any forensic issues.
    • In phases three through seven, a target memory is identified with the client identifying the image that represents the worst part of the disturbing event, the negative cognition associated with the image and a positive cognition (PC) that the client would like to believe instead. The PC is then measured on the Validity of Cognition (VoC) Scale of 1-7 with 1 being completely false and 7 being completely true. Once the clinician has assessed the client’s current feelings about the VoC, the client is asked to identify the emotions associated with the target. The disturbance associated with the emotions is then measured on a Subjective Units of Distress Scale (SUDS) ranging from 0 being no disturbance to 10 being the most disturbing. Then the client is asked to identify where s/he feels any disturbing body sensations when focusing on the target. After the client is guided through these series of questions, s/he is then asked to hold together the image and the negative cognition along with the body sensations and the therapist starts sets of bilateral stimulation. Using standardized procedures the entire memory is addressed during the Desensitization Phase of EMDR therapy until the disturbance is assessed by the client to be a SUDS rating of zero. Although eye movements are the most commonly used external form of bilateral stimulation, therapists may also use auditory or tactile stimulation.
    • During reprocessing, the client is instructed to just notice whatever happens during the bilateral stimulation. The clinician then instructs the client to let his/her mind go blank and to notice whatever thought, feeling, image, memory, or sensation comes to mind. Depending upon the client's report, the clinician will facilitate the next focus of attention and restart bilateral stimulation. In most cases, a client-directed association process is encouraged. Client-directed association refers to following what the client reports after doing the eye movements. This is repeated numerous times throughout the session. If the client becomes distressed or has difficulty with the process, the therapist follows established procedures to help the client resume reprocessing.
    • When the client reports no distress related to the targeted memory, the clinician asks him/her to think of the preferred PC that was identified at the beginning of the session, or a better one if it has emerged, and to focus on the incident, while simultaneously engaging in the eye movements. Then the client is asked to identify and focus on any residual disturbing body sensations and these are processed.
    • In phase seven, closure, the therapist reminds the client of the self-soothing and calming skills and to note any targets, images, cognitions, emotions, and/or sensations (TICES) that arise between sessions, and then to report these to the therapist at the next session.
    • In phase eight, re-evaluation of the previous work, and of progress since the previous session, takes place.
  • EMDR treatment ensures processing of all related historical events, current incidents that elicit distress and future scenarios that will require different responses. Re-evaluation continues through each session as targets are reprocessed and the treatment plan is followed toward discharge planning.

Child/Adolescent Services

Eye Movement Desensitization and Reprocessing (EMDR) [Trauma Treatment - Client-Level Interventions (Child & Adolescent)] directly provides services to children/adolescents and addresses the following:

  • PTSD, anxiety, fears, and behavioral problems

Delivery Settings

This program is typically conducted in a(n):

  • Community Agency
  • Hospital
  • Outpatient Clinic
  • Residential Care Facility
  • School

Homework

This program does not include a homework component.

Languages

Eye Movement Desensitization and Reprocessing (EMDR) [Trauma Treatment - Client-Level Interventions (Child & Adolescent)] has materials available in languages other than English:

Danish, Dutch, Flemish, French, German, Haitian Creole, Hebrew, Italian, Japanese, Mandarin, Spanish, Swedish

For information on which materials are available in these languages, please check on the program's website or contact the program representative (contact information is listed at the bottom of this page).

Resources Needed to Run Program

The typical resources for implementing the program are:

  • Office space to conduct treatment

Minimum Provider Qualifications

Qualifying individual providers must be either fully licensed mental health professionals or be enrolled in a Master's or Doctorate level program in the mental health field (Social Work, Counseling, Marriage Family Therapy, Psychology, Psychiatry, or Psychiatric Nursing) currently involved in the practicum and/or internship portion of the program they are enrolled in (first year students not eligible) and on a licensing track working under the supervision of a fully licensed mental health professional.

Education and Training Resources

There is a manual that describes how to implement this program, and there is training available for this program.

Training Contacts:
  • Robbie Dunton, Commercial Trainings Contact
    EMDR Institute
    www.emdr.com
    phone: (831) 761-1040
  • Bob Gelbach, Executive Director of EMDR HAP (for Nonprofit Trainings)
    www.emdrhap.org
    phone: (203) 288-4450
Training is obtained:

Commercial trainings are held throughout the country. Nonprofit trainings are often onsite.

Number of days/hours:

The basic training consists of two 3-day training modules. In addition, 10 hours of case consultation are required to learn to implement the protocol.

Additional Resources:

There currently are additional qualified resources for training:

Additional qualified trainers are listed on the following webpage: www.emdria.org

Implementation Information

Since Eye Movement Desensitization and Reprocessing (EMDR) [Trauma Treatment - Client-Level Interventions (Child & Adolescent)] is rated on the Scientific Rating Scale, information was requested from the program representative on available pre-implementation assessments, implementation tools, and/or fidelity measures.

Show implementation information...

Pre-Implementation Materials

There are pre-implementation materials to measure organizational or provider readiness for Eye Movement Desensitization and Reprocessing (EMDR) [Trauma Treatment - Client-Level Interventions (Child & Adolescent)] as listed below:

EMDR Humanitarian Assistance Programs (HAP, Trauma Recovery Program) has a letter of inquiry sent out to nonprofit agencies to assess the nature of the agency (i.e., population, number of licensed clinicians, etc.). It is available by sending an email to cmartin@emdrhap.org.

Formal Support for Implementation

There is formal support available for implementation of Eye Movement Desensitization and Reprocessing (EMDR) [Trauma Treatment - Client-Level Interventions (Child & Adolescent)] as listed below:

Both the EMDR Institute and EMDR HAP (Trauma Recovery) have a formal process for implementation of the trainings. Both organizations have staff to assist with the implementation.

Fidelity Measures

The program representative did not provide information about fidelity measures of Eye Movement Desensitization and Reprocessing (EMDR) [Trauma Treatment - Client-Level Interventions (Child & Adolescent)].

Implementation Guides or Manuals

The program representative did not provide information about implementation guides or manuals for Eye Movement Desensitization and Reprocessing (EMDR) [Trauma Treatment - Client-Level Interventions (Child & Adolescent)].

Research on How to Implement the Program

Research has not been conducted on how to implement Eye Movement Desensitization and Reprocessing (EMDR) [Trauma Treatment - Client-Level Interventions (Child & Adolescent)].

Relevant Published, Peer-Reviewed Research

This program is rated a "1 - Well-Supported by Research Evidence" on the Scientific Rating Scale based on the published, peer-reviewed research available. The program must have at least two rigorous randomized controlled trials with one showing a sustained effect of at least 1 year. The article(s) below that reports outcomes from an RCT showing a sustained effect of at least 1 year has an asterisk (*) at the beginning of its entry. Please see the Scientific Rating Scale for more information.

Child Welfare Outcome: Child/Family Well-Being

Show relevant research...

A meta-analysis, see citation following, has also been conducted on Eye Movement Desensitization and Reprocessing for Children and Adolescents (EMDR) though this article is not used for rating and therefore is not summarized:

  • Rodenburg, R., Benjamin, A., de Roos, C., Meijer, A. M., & Stams, G. J. (2009). Efficacy of EMDR in children: A meta-analysis. Clinical Psychology Review, 29, 599-606.

When more than 10 research articles have been published in peer-reviewed journals, the CEBC reviews all of the articles as part of the rating process and identifies the 10 most relevant articles, with a focus on randomized controlled trials (RCTs) and controlled studies that have an impact on the rating. The 10 articles chosen for EMDR are summarized below:

Scheck, M., Schaeffer, J. A., & Gillette, C. (1998). Brief psychological intervention with traumatized young women: The efficacy of Eye Movement Desensitization and Reprocessing. Journal of Traumatic Stress, 11, 25-44.

Type of Study: Randomized controlled trial
Number of Participants: 60 Females

Population:

  • Age — 16-25 years
  • Race/Ethnicity — 62% Caucasian, 15% African American, 15% Hispanic, and 8% Native American
  • Gender — 100% Female
  • Status — Participants were recruited through municipal agencies.

Location/Institution: Colorado

Summary: (To include comparison groups, outcomes, measures, notable limitations)
To study the efficacy, of Eye Movement Desensitization and Reprocessing (EMDR) with traumatized young women, women were randomly assigned to two sessions of either EMDR or an active listening (AL) control. Measures included the Beck Depression Inventory, State-Trait Anxiety Inventory, Penn Inventory for Posttraumatic Stress Disorder, Impact of Event Scale, and Tennessee Self-Concept Scale. Analyses indicated significant improvement for both groups and significantly greater pre-post change for EMDR-treated participants. Limitations include the small sample size, limited follow-up, use of other treatments by the subjects, and the use of self-report measures of behavior change.

Length of postintervention follow-up: 90 days.

Rubin, A., Bischofshausen, S., Conroy Moore, K., Dennis, B., Hastie, M., Melnick, L., & Smith, T. (2001). The effectiveness of EMDR in a child guidance center. Research on Social Work Practice, 11(4), 435−457.

Type of Study: Randomized controlled trial
Number of Participants: 39

Population:

  • Age — 6-15 years
  • Race/Ethnicity — 6 African Americans, 3 Hispanics, and 30 not specified
  • Gender — 20 Femalea and 19 Male
  • Status — Participants were children receiving treatment whose therapists identified them as potentially benefitting from EMDR.

Location/Institution: Austin Child Guidance Center (ACGC) in Austin, Texas

Summary: (To include comparison groups, outcomes, measures, notable limitations)
The study evaluated the effectiveness of adding Eye Movement Desensitization and Reprocessing (EMDR) to the routine treatment regimen of child therapists. Clients were randomly assigned to receive EMDR plus the center’s routine treatment package, or a control group that received only the center’s routine treatment package. The primary measure was the Child Behavior Checklist (CBCL). Analyses found no differences between the overall groups. Analyses on clients with elevated baseline scores found moderate effect sizes that approached, but fell short of, statistical significance. Limitations include the small sample size, the diverse nature of diagnoses in the sample, and the lack of a trauma-specific outcome measure.

Length of postintervention follow-up: 6 months.

*Chemtob, C. M., Nakashima, J., & Carlson, J. G. (2002). Brief-treatment for elementary school children with disaster-related PTSD: A field study. Journal of Clinical Psychology, 58, 99-112.

Type of Study: Randomized controlled trial with wait-list comparison group
Number of Participants: 32

Population:

  • Age — 6-12 years
  • Race/Ethnicity — 31.3% Hawaiian, 28.1% Filipino, 18.8% Caucasian, 12.5% Japanese, and 9.4% Mixed
  • Gender — 69% Female
  • Status — Participants were children who had experienced trauma due to a hurricane.

Location/Institution: Hawaii

Summary: (To include comparison groups, outcomes, measures, notable limitations)
This study was conducted using two groups in an ABA design plus a 6-month follow-up. Eye Movement Desensitization and Reprocessing (EMDR) was found to be an effective treatment for children with disaster-related posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) who had not responded to another intervention. Measures included the Revised Children's Manifest Anxiety Scale and the Children's Depression Inventory. This is the first controlled study for disaster-related PTSD, and the first controlled study examining the treatment of children with PTSD. Limitations include the small sample size and the lack of a comparison treatment.

Length of postintervention follow-up: 6 months.

Soberman, G. B., Greenwald, R., & Rule, D. L. (2002). A controlled study of Eye Movement Desensitization and Reprocessing (EMDR) for boys with conduct problems. Journal of Aggression, Maltreatment, & Trauma, 6(1), 217-236.

Type of Study: Randomized controlled trial
Number of Participants: 29

Population:

  • Age — 10-16 Years
  • Race/Ethnicity — Not specified
  • Gender — 100% Male
  • Status — Participants were boys with conduct problems in residential or day treatment.

Location/Institution: New York

Summary: (To include comparison groups, outcomes, measures, notable limitations)
Participants were randomly assigned to either a control group or to an experimental group. All participants were given the same standard treatment, including weekly individual psychotherapy, group psychotherapy, special education services, a behavioral point modification system, and medication and/or psychoeducational parent family counseling as needed, but those in the experimental group additionally received three sessions of Eye Movement Desensitization and Reprocessing (EMDR) treatment. Measures to assess post-trauma symptoms included the Subjective Units of Distress Scale (SUDS), the Impact of Events Scale – 8 Items (IES-8), the Child and Parent Reports of Post-traumatic Symptoms (CROPS and PROPS, respectively), the Problem Rating Scale (PRS), and the Behavioral Reward Scale (BRS). The EMDR group showed large and significant reduction of memory-related distress, as well as trends towards reduction of post-traumatic symptoms. The EMDR group also showed large and significant reduction of problem behaviors by 2-month follow-up, whereas the control group showed only slight improvement. Limitations of the study include the small sample size and use of only male participants with conduct disorders.

Length of postintervention follow-up: 2 months.

Fernandez, I., Gallinari, E., & Lorenzetti, A. (2004). A school-based EMDR intervention for children who witnessed the Pirelli building airplane crash in Milan, Italy. Journal of Brief Therapy, 2, 129-136.

Type of Study: One group pretest/posttest study
Number of Participants: 236 school children

Population:

  • Age — 6-11 years
  • Race/Ethnicity — 60% European and 40% Other
  • Gender — Not specified
  • Status — Participants were schoolchildren who witnessed the Pirelli Tower crash.

Location/Institution: Milan, Italy

Summary: (To include comparison groups, outcomes, measures, notable limitations)
A non-randomized trial of a group intervention of Eye Movement Desensitization and Reprocessing (EMDR) was provided to 236 schoolchildren exhibiting PTSD symptoms 30 days post-incident (witnessing Pirelli building airplane crash in Milan Italy). At four-month follow up, teachers reported that all but two children showed a return to normal functioning after treatment. Distress was also assessed with the Subjective Units of Distress Scale, modified for use with children; and through content of children’s directed drawings.

Length of postintervention follow-up: 4 months.

Jaberghaderi, N., Greenwald, R., Rubin, A., Dolatabadim S., & Zand, S. O. (2004). A comparison of CBT and EMDR for sexually abused Iranian girls. Clinical Psychology and Psychotherapy, 11(5), 358 – 368.

Type of Study: Randomized controlled trial with some adjustment (see summary)
Number of Participants: 14

Population:

  • Age — 12-13 years
  • Race/Ethnicity — Iranian
  • Gender — 100% Female
  • Status — Participants were volunteers recruited from schools.

Location/Institution: Iran

Summary: (To include comparison groups, outcomes, measures, notable limitations)
Fourteen Iranian girls ages 12-13 years old who had been sexually abused were randomly assigned (with some adjustments to promote equivalence between groups) to receive up to 12 sessions of Cognitive Behavioral Therapy (CBT) or Eye Movement Desensitization and Reprocessing (EMDR) treatment. Assessment of post-traumatic stress symptoms and problem behaviors was completed at pretreatment and 2 weeks posttreatment. Both treatments showed large effect sizes on the post-traumatic symptom outcomes, and a medium effect size on the behavior outcome, all statistically significant. A nonsignificant trend on self-reported post-traumatic stress symptoms favored EMDR over CBT. Treatment efficiency was calculated by dividing change scores by number of sessions. EMDR was significantly more efficient, with large effect sizes on each outcome. Limitations include a small sample, single therapist for each treatment condition, no independent verification of treatment fidelity, and no long-term follow-up.

Length of postintervention follow-up: 2 weeks.

Ahmad, A., Larsson, B., & Sundelin-Wahlstein, V. (2007). EMDR treatment for children with PTSD: Results of a randomized controlled trial. Nordic Journal of Psychiatry, 61(5), 349-354.

Type of Study: Randomized controlled trial
Number of Participants: 33

Population:

  • Age — 6-16 years
  • Race/Ethnicity — EMDR: 70.6% Swedish and 29.4% Other; Control: 43.7% Swedish and 56.3% Other
  • Gender — Not specified
  • Status — Participants were children at an outpatient clinic who received a diagnosis of PTSD due to familial abuse or neglect.

Location/Institution: Sweden

Summary: (To include comparison groups, outcomes, measures, notable limitations)
Children diagnosed with PTSD were randomly assigned to receive Eye Movement Desensitization and Reprocessing (EMDR) or to a wait-list control group (WLC). Exposure to traumatic events was assessed using the Harvard-Uppsala Trauma Questionnaire for Children (HUTQ-C). Diagnosis was also established using the Diagnostic Interview for Children (DICA) and the Posttraumatic Stress Symptom Scale (PTSS-C). The experimental group of children received developmentally appropriate versions of EMDR. Posttreatment PTSS scores were significantly lower for children in the EMDR group.

Length of postintervention follow-up: None.

*Kemp, M., Drummond, P., & McDermott, B. (2010). A wait-list controlled pilot study of Eye Movement Desensitization and Reprocessing (EMDR) for children with post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) symptoms from motor vehicle accidents. Clinical Child Psychology & Psychiatry, 15(1), 5-25.

Type of Study: Randomized controlled trial
Number of Participants: 27

Population:

  • Age — 6-12 years
  • Race/Ethnicity — Not specified
  • Gender — 15 Males and 12 Females
  • Status — Participants were motor vehicle accident victims with persistent posttraumatic stress disorder symptoms (PTSD).

Location/Institution: Australia

Summary: (To include comparison groups, outcomes, measures, notable limitations)
This study examined the efficacy of four one-hour Eye Movement Desensitization and Reprocessing (EMDR) sessions in comparison to a six-week wait-list control condition in the treatment of children suffering from persistent PTSD symptoms after a motor vehicle accident. Participants were randomly assigned to either the wait-list control or EMDR group. Measures used included the Child PTS-RI, PTSD DSM-IV criteria, the State Trait Anxiety Inventory for Children (STAIC), Children’s Depression Scale (CDS), and the Child Behavior Checklist (CBCL). All participants initially met two or more PTSD criteria. After EMDR treatment, this decreased to 25% in the EMDR group, but remained at 100% in the wait-list group. For children in the EMDR condition, both the number of DSM-IV PTSD criteria and child PTS-RI scores improved from posttreatment to 12-month follow-up. Parent ratings of their child’s PTSD symptoms showed no improvement, nor did a range of nontrauma child self-report and parent-reported symptoms. Treatment gains were maintained at three and 12 month follow-up. Limitations of the study include small sample size, the single cause of PTSD symptoms (all were in motor vehicle accidents), and the fact that a single therapist completed the treatment and outcome assessments.

Length of postintervention follow-up: 3 months and 12 months.

Roos, C., Greenwald, R., Hollander-Gusman, M., Noorthoorn, E., Buuren, S., & Jongh, A. (2011). A randomised comparison of cognitive behavioural therapy (CBT) and eye movement desensitisation and reprocessing (EMDR) in disasterexposed children. European Journal of Psychotraumatology, North America, 2.

Type of Study: Randomized controlled trial
Number of Participants: 52

Population:

  • Age — 4-18 years
  • Race/Ethnicity — Not specified
  • Gender — 56% Male
  • Status — Particiapnts were children of parents who approached a disaster mental health after-care center for help with their child’s firework disaster-related symptoms

Location/Institution: The Netherlands

Summary: (To include comparison groups, outcomes, measures, notable limitations)
This study compares the effectiveness and efficiency of Cognitive-Behavioral Therapy (CBT) and Eye Movement Desensitization and Reprocessing (EMDR). Children were randomly allocated to either CBT or EMDR in a disaster mental health after-care setting after an explosion of a fireworks factory. All children received up to four individual treatment sessions over a 4-8 week period along with up to four sessions of parent guidance. Measures include the UCLA PTSD Reaction Index, the Child Behavior Check List, and the Multidimensional Anxiety Scale for Children. Analyses showed that both treatment approaches produced significant reductions on all measures and results were maintained at follow-up. Treatment gains of EMDR were reached in fewer sessions. Limitations included a lack of precise information about the length of sessions, concerns about the treatment fidelity measures, and the small sample size.

Length of postintervention follow-up: 3 months.

Diehle, J., Opmeer, B. C., Boer, F., Mannarino, A. P., & Lindauer, R. J. (2014). Trauma-focused cognitive behavioral therapy or eye movement desensitization and reprocessing: what works in children with posttraumatic stress symptoms? A randomized controlled trial. European Child & Adolescent Psychiatry. Advance online publication. doi: 10.1007/s00787-014-0572-5

Type of Study: Randomized controlled trial
Number of Participants: 48

Population:

  • Age — 8-18 years
  • Race/Ethnicity — 77% Dutch
  • Gender — 30 Females and 18 Males
  • Status — Participants were children and adolescents that have experienced trauma.

Location/Institution: Trauma Center of the Department of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, de Bascule, of the Academic Medical Centre in Amsterdam

Summary: (To include comparison groups, outcomes, measures, notable limitations)
This study examined the effectiveness and efficiency of Trauma-Focused Cognitive-Behavioral Therapy (TF-CBT) and Eye Movement Desensitization and Reprocessing (EMDR). Children were randomized to receive either TF-CBT or EMDR. Measures utilized include the Clinician-Administered PTSD Scale for Children and Adolescents (CAPS-CA), the Anxiety Disorder Interview Schedule for DSM-IV: Child and Parent interview schedule (ADIS C/P), the Children’s Revised Impact of Event Scale (CRIES-13), the Revised Child Anxiety and Depression Scale (RCADS), and the Strength and Difficulties Questionnaire (SDQ). Treatment lengths were not significantly different between the two groups. Results indicate that both the TF-CBT group and the EMDR group improved on the PTSD measure after treatment; the difference in improvement between the groups was small and not statistically significant. In addition, parents of children treated with TF-CBT reported a significant reduction of comorbid depressive and hyperactive symptoms. Limitations include small sample size, high attrition rate and lack of follow-up.

Length of postintervention follow-up: None.

References

Adler-Tapia, R., & Settle, C. (2009). Evidence of the efficacy of EMDR with children and adolescents in individual psychotherapy: A review of the research published in peer-reviewed journals. Journal of EMDR Practice and Research, 3(4), 232-247.

Adler-Tapia, R.L. & Settle, C.S. (2009) EMDR psychotherapy with children. In, A. Rubin & Springer (Eds.) Treatment of traumatized adults and children: Part of the clinician’s guide to evidence based practice series. New York: Wiley.

Contact Information

Name: Robbie Dunton, MA
Agency/Affiliation: EMDR Institute
Website: www.emdr.com
Email:
Phone: (831) 761-1040
Fax: (831) 761-1204

Date Research Evidence Last Reviewed by CEBC: December 2015

Date Program Content Last Reviewed by Program Staff: March 2014

Date Program Originally Loaded onto CEBC: May 2006