Families Facing the Future

Scientific Rating:
2
Supported by Research Evidence
See scale of 1-5
Child Welfare System Relevance Level:
Medium
See descriptions of 3 levels

About This Program

The information in this program outline is provided by the program representative and edited by the CEBC staff. Families Facing the Future has been rated by the CEBC in the area of: Substance Abuse Treatment (Adult).

Target Population: Parents receiving methadone treatment and their children ages 5-14

For children/adolescents ages: 5 – 14

For parents/caregivers of children ages: 5 – 14

Brief Description

The Families Facing the Future parent training curriculum consists of one five-hour family retreat and 32 hour-and-a-half parent training sessions. Sessions are conducted twice a week over a 16-week period. Children attend 12 of these sessions to practice the skills with their parents.

Parent sessions are conducted with groups of six to eight families. It is necessary to provide practice opportunities as well as skill components that address recurring problem behaviors specific to the needs of the parents. The parent training format combines a peer support and skill training model. The training curriculum teaches skills using the "guided participant modeling." Skills are modeled by trainers and other group members, then discussed by participants. Skills steps are reviewed and then parents practice the steps. Video-tape is frequently used in modeling the skills or during practice of the skills. The training focuses on affective and cognitive as well as behavioral aspects of performance.

Program Goals:

The goals of Families Facing the Future are:

  • Reduce parents' use of illegal drugs
  • Reduce risk factors for their children's future drug use while enhancing protective factors

Essential Components

The essential components of Families Facing the Future include:

  • Groups consist of 6 to 8 families per group
  • Session topics are targeted at specific risk and protective factors and include:
    • Family Goal Setting: This five-hour session focuses on bringing a variety of families together to share a common, trust-building experience. Families work together to develop goals for their participation.
    • Relapse Prevention: These four sessions include identification of relapse signals or triggers, anger and stress control, and creating and practicing a relapse plan in the event of relapse. The primary focus during these sessions is the impact of relapse on the client's children and skills to prevent and cope with relapse situations.
    • Family Communication Skills: The skills of Paraphrasing, Open Questions, "I" Messages are taught during these sessions. Families practice using the skills during two practice sessions. Families also practice and use Family Involvement Skills to develop family expectations and plans for regular family meetings or family play and fun time. All subsequent groups reinforce the use of the communication skills taught in these early sessions. Families are asked to conduct weekly family meetings to practice the skills learned in the training.
    • Family Management Skills: Parents learn and practice setting clear and specific expectations, monitoring expectations, rewarding for positive behaviors, and instilling consequences for negative behaviors. Parents practice implementing "the law of least intervention," using the smallest intervention to get the desired behavior from their child. A variety of discipline practices are learned and practiced by parents. These include, praise, ignoring, expressing feelings, if-then messages, time-outs, and privilege restrictions.
    • Creating Family Expectations about Drugs and Alcohol: Families work together to define and clarify expectations about drugs and alcohol in their families.
    • Teaching Children Skills: Parents learn how to teach their children two important skills, Refusal Skills and Problem Solving Skills, using a five-step process.
    • Helping Children Succeed In School: Parents build on the previously learned skills to create, monitor, and consequence a home learning routine for their children.
  • The curriculum allows for participant practice in situations they currently face with their own children. Parents complete home extension exercises after each session to generalize the skills from the training setting to the home setting. After parents learn and practice skills, family sessions are conducted where parents and children practice using their new skills together.
  • The Families Facing the Future case management intervention comprehensively addresses important aspects of family life. The case management intervention is designed to test the effectiveness of:
    • Helping families to identify their goals and empowering them to work toward those goals
    • Building on families' strengths to stabilize their household through providing tangible services and skills
    • Working directly with clients and their families to reduce post-treatment relapse factors and risk factors for later drug abuse by children
    • Motivating and encouraging continuation with the parenting skills training
    • Further reinforcing, practicing, and generalizing parenting skills to the home environment
  • Case managers approach these tasks by providing families with a pro-social model, offering them opportunities for involvement in pro-social activities, networking them into needed services, and changing their reward structure through coaching and reinforcement of their new skills. Case managers also work with families to accomplish the family goals established in the initial parent training session.

Child/Adolescent Services

Families Facing the Future directly provides services to children/adolescents and addresses the following:

  • Parents with drug abuse and dependence problems

Parent/Caregiver Services

Families Facing the Future directly provides services to parents/caregivers and addresses the following:

  • Drug abuse and dependence

Delivery Setting

This program is typically conducted in a(n):

  • Outpatient Clinic

Homework

Families Facing the Future includes a homework component:

Short family activities to be completed

Languages

Families Facing the Future does not have materials available in a language other than English.

Resources Needed to Run Program

The typical resources for implementing the program are:

  • 1 meeting room
  • Cost of two full to half-time staff are needed for group work and home visits
  • Childcare
  • DVD or VHS player
  • TV

Minimum Provider Qualifications

Training in chemical dependency and parenting, Master's level education

Education and Training Resources

There is a manual that describes how to implement this program, and there is training available for this program.

Training Contact:
Training is obtained:

Onsite; travel expenses must be reimbursed

Number of days/hours:

3 days at 8 hours per day

Implementation Information

Since Families Facing the Future is rated on the Scientific Rating Scale, information was requested from the program representative on available pre-implementation assessments, implementation tools, and/or fidelity measures.

Show implementation information...

Pre-Implementation Materials

There are pre-implementation materials to measure organizational or provider readiness for Families Facing the Future as listed below:

Members of the Families Facing the Future staff work with the treatment agency to ensure they are tracking the patients at intake and collecting information on children's ages. This information is used to evaluate whether or not the agency has the patient base necessary to launch the Families Facing the Future program.

Formal Support for Implementation

The program representative did not provide information about formal support for implementation of Families Facing the Future.

Fidelity Measures

The program representative did not provide information about fidelity measures of Families Facing the Future.

Implementation Guides or Manuals

The program representative did not provide information about implementation guides or manuals for Families Facing the Future.

Research on How to Implement the Program

The program representative did not provide information about research conducted on how to implement Families Facing the Future.

Relevant Published, Peer-Reviewed Research

This program is rated a "2 - Supported by Research Evidence" on the Scientific Rating Scale based on the published, peer-reviewed research available. The program must have at least one rigorous randomized controlled trial with a sustained effect of at least 6 months. The article(s) below that reports outcomes from an RCT showing a sustained effect of at least 6 months has an asterisk (*) at the beginning of its entry. Please see the Scientific Rating Scale for more information.

Child Welfare Outcome: Child/Family Well-Being

Show relevant research...

*Catalano, R. F., Gainey, R. R., Fleming, C. B., Haggerty, K. P., &, Johnson, N. O. (1999). An experimental intervention with families of substance abusers: one-year follow-up of the focus on families project. Addiction, 94(2), 241-254.

Type of Study: Randomized controlled trial
Number of Participants: Parents, 144; Children, 178

Population:

  • Age — 35.3 years on average
  • Race/Ethnicity — 76.7% White, 18.2% African American, and 5.1% Other
  • Gender — Not specified
  • Status — Participants were parents being treated in a methadone clinic.

Location/Institution: Seattle, WA

Summary: (To include comparison groups, outcomes, measures, notable limitations)
Parents were randomly assigned to receive standard methadone treatment plus the Families Facing the Future program, or standard methadone treatment alone. Parents and children were interviewed using questions designed for this study covering the topics of parent and child substance use, family interaction and conflict, parenting, and peers. In addition, random urine samples were collected for urinalysis. Results showed some improvement in parents’ ability to avoid drug use, use of household rules and reduction in domestic conflict. Parents also reported significantly less cocaine use. Significant differences were not found between the intervention and comparison group on children’s behaviors by the end of the follow-up period for this study.

Length of postintervention follow-up: 6 and 12 months.

Gainey, R. R., Haggerty, K. P., Fleming, C. B., & Catalano, R. F. (2007). Teaching parenting skills in a methadone treatment setting. Social Work Research, 31(3), 185-189.

Type of Study: Randomized controlled trial
Number of Participants: 63 Intervention, 49 Methadone-only

Population:

  • Age — Mean=35 years
  • Race/Ethnicity — 77% White
  • Gender — Not specified
  • Status — Participants were clients recruited from methadone clinics.

Location/Institution: Seattle, WA

Summary: (To include comparison groups, outcomes, measures, notable limitations)
Note: This analysis uses the same sample as Catalano et al., 1999. Parents undergoing methadone treatment were randomly assigned to receive the parent training intervention or to a standard treatment only comparison group. A parenting skills interview was designed for this study an incorporated hypothetical parenting scenarios relevant to substance-abusing parents and children at various developmental stages. Parents in the experimental condition were rated higher on parenting skills, with those who attended more sessions showing a stronger effect. Conclusions are limited based on un-standardized self-report measures.

Length of postintervention follow-up: Within one month of program completion.

The following studies were not included in rating Families Facing the Future on the Scientific Rating Scale...

Haggerty, K. P., Skinner, M., Fleming, C. B., Gainey, R. R., & Catalano, R. F. (2008). Long-term effects of the Focus on Families project on substance use disorders among children of parents in methadone treatment. Addiction, 103, 2008-2016.

Note: This analysis uses the same sample as Catalano et al., 1999. Parents were randomly assigned to receive either standard methadone treatment services or a parenting skills training and home-based case management program. At this follow-up children were assessed for substance abuse based on the Diagnostic and Statistics Manual for Mental Disorders, 4th Edition (DSM-IV) criteria for substance abuse disorders using the Composite International Diagnostic Interview (CIDI). Analyses found that boys in the intervention condition were less likely to have developed a substance abuse disorder at this follow-up, but there were no effects of the intervention for girls. The authors suggest that the parent training intervention may have put more emphasis on reducing the externalizing behaviors more common to boys. This study looked at child outcomes, not substance abuse outcomes for the adults, and was therefore not used in rating the program in the Substance Abuse Treatment (Adult) topic area.

Skinner, M. L., Haggerty, K. P., Fleming, C. B., & Catalano, R. F. (2009). Predicting functional resilience among young-adult children of opiate-dependent parents. Journal of Adolescent Health, 44, 283-290.

Note: This analysis uses the same sample as Catalano et al., 1999. This study examined outcomes of young-adult children of parents who were randomly assigned to receive either standard methadone treatment or treatment plus a parent-training program. This study examined functional resilience as measured by employment/education and lack of criminal charges within the past 5 years and also assessed substance abuse using the disorders using the Composite International Diagnostic Interview (CIDI). There were no differences in resilience between intervention and control participants. This study looked at child outcomes, not substance abuse outcomes for the adults, and was therefore not used in rating the program in the Substance Abuse Treatment (Adult) topic area.

References

Catalano, R. F., Haggerty, K. P., Fleming, C. B., & Skinner, M. L. (2007). Focus on Families: Integration of relapse prevention and child drug abuse prevention training with parents in methadone treatment. In K. A. Witkiewitz & G. A. Marlatt (Eds.), Therapist's guide to evidence-based relapse prevention (pp. 237-257). Burlington, MA: Elsevier.

Gainey, R. R., Haggerty, K. P., Fleming, C. B., & Catalano, R. F. (2007). Teaching parenting skills in a methadone treatment setting. Social Work Research, 31(3), 185-190.

Haggerty, K. P., Skinner, M. L., Fleming, C. B., Gainey, R. R., & Catalano, R. F. (2008). Long-term effects of the Focus on Families project on substance use disorders among children of parents in methadone treatment. Addiction, 103, 2008-2016.

Contact Information

Name: Kevin Haggerty, MSW
Agency/Affiliation: University of Washington
Department: Social Development Research Group
Website: www.sdrg.org/fffsummary.asp
Email:
Phone: (206) 543-3188
Fax: (206) 543-4507

Date Research Evidence Last Reviewed by CEBC: September 2016

Date Program Content Last Reviewed by Program Staff: October 2016

Date Program Originally Loaded onto CEBC: June 2009