FAST® - Elementary School Level

Scientific Rating:
3
Promising Research Evidence
See scale of 1-5
Child Welfare System Relevance Level:
Medium
See descriptions of 3 levels

About This Program

The information in this program outline is provided by the program representative and edited by the CEBC staff. FAST® - Elementary School Level has been rated by the CEBC in the area of: Parent Training Programs that Address Behavior Problems in Children and Adolescents.

Target Population: Children in Pre-Kindergarten through 5th grade and their families

For children/adolescents ages: 4 – 11

For parents/caregivers of children ages: 4 – 11

Brief Description

FAST® - Elementary School Level is a 2-year prevention/early intervention program based on social ecological theory, family systems theory, social mobility theory, child development theory, and family stress theory. FAST® is designed to build relationships within and between families, schools, and communities (particularly in low-income areas) to improve childhood outcomes.

The intervention consists of an active outreach phase to engage and recruit families; 8 weeks of multifamily group meetings, each about 2.5 hours long; and continued in 2 years of monthly, parent-led group meetings. The 8 weekly sessions follow a preset schedule and include activities such as family communication and bonding games, parent-directed family meals, parent social support groups, between-family bonding activities, one-on-one child-directed play therapy, and opening and closing routines modeling family rituals. Sessions are led by trained culturally representative teams that include at least one member of the school staff in addition to parents and professionals from local social service agencies.

Program Goals:

The goals of FAST® - Elementary School Level are:

  • Strengthen family functioning
  • Increase child well-being and improve child mental health at home and school
  • Improve capacity of the child and family to manage daily stress by building social networks
  • Prevent substance abuse in children and reduce potential substance abuse in families
  • Enhance parent–child bonding and family functioning while reducing family conflict and child neglect
  • Build protective factors and coping skills to reduce routine stress that children and parents experience
  • Build capacities to cope with future or potential traumatic stress
  • Enhance school success through more parent involvement and family engagement at school, improved school climate, and decreased school mobility
  • Prevent substance use by both adults and children by building protective factors and referring appropriately for treatment
  • Empower parents, build social capital, and increase social inclusion

Essential Components

The essential components of FAST® - Elementary School Level include:

  • In-home outreach to parents to introduce FAST® and encourage voluntary participation
  • 8 weekly multifamily group sessions based on experiential learning and repetition:
    • Family time: 1 hour of structured activities including music, singing, crafts and parent-led family games for stress/cortisol reduction
    • Parent-led family activities: Designed to increase family communication games about ideas and feelings, the activities involve:
      • Turn taking
      • Listening
      • Speaking and waiting for parents to give instructions
      • Following instructions, which increase positive parental skills to act warmly while also being an authority (based on family therapy to support the family hierarchy of the executive subsystem)
    • Family-hosted meals and eating as a family each week with positive talk time
    • One-to-one responsive play time—with parents following the child’s lead (15 minutes)
    • Parent-to parent ‘buddy’ time in pairs for building support; parent group session with a chance to find their own topics of shared interest
    • Structured kids peer activities supervised by school or community professionals
  • Core activities repeated each week to gain mastery and self-efficacy; team trained to support the parent and give the parent information; team has local parents and professionals which are culturally representative of the families being served in groups and trained to block and divert conflict
  • Ongoing monthly group meetings for 2 years of continued booster sessions to support the family and community relationships, practice the one-to-one responsive play, and support parents as the primary prevention agents for their children in the community; growing local parent leaders
  • All siblings in the family (regardless of age) may benefit from participating in the positive emotion, non-conflicted family activities with parents taking the lead with social support. Repetition creates positive neural networks which are a preferred route and increase resilience curiosity and protective factors against adversity and child stress.
  • With each cycle of FAST® implementation, 30 to 50 students and their whole families can participate. The sub-groups of 10 families each meet in separate classrooms or rooms.

Child/Adolescent Services

FAST® - Elementary School Level directly provides services to children/adolescents and addresses the following:

  • Living in disadvantaged communities with increased risk of neglect and abuse, disruptive behavior at home or in school, poor academic performance, at risk for substance abuse or gang activity

Parent/Caregiver Services

FAST® - Elementary School Level directly provides services to parents/caregivers and addresses the following:

  • Parents living in disadvantaged communities with high levels of chronic unemployment, poverty, social exclusion, criminality, violence and substance abuse problems as well as parents of children with behavior problems; parents of children who are performing poorly in school; parents in families with substance abuse issues; parents in families with a history of violence, abuse, or neglect; parents with difficulty managing their child’s behavior, and lastly, parents who are at high risk of abuse and neglect
Services Involve Family/Support Structures:

This program involves the family or other support systems in the individual's treatment: FAST® involves the family or other support systems in the individual's treatment: Children ages 4-11 years old participate in most activities with their families in FAST® and the extended family is welcome. There are no exclusions.

Delivery Settings

This program is typically conducted in a(n):

  • Community Daily Living Settings
  • School

Homework

FAST® - Elementary School Level includes a homework component:

One-to-one time responsive play at-home activities

Languages

FAST® - Elementary School Level has materials available in languages other than English:

French, German, Russian, Spanish

For information on which materials are available in these languages, please check on the program's website or contact the program representative (contact information is listed at the bottom of this page).

Resources Needed to Run Program

The typical resources for implementing the program are:

  • Space Resources:
    • Single room large enough for 15 whole families to sit at individual tables
    • Separate rooms for adults and children to split into separate peer groups
    • Room enough for the trained team to move about and give instructions and support parents privately while they sit at the tables
  • Material resources:
    • Pencils, paper, art supplies for group creative craft projects
    • Small inexpensive toys for unstructured play
    • All materials should be available at schools and in most homes, and must be inexpensive and accessible to low-income families (can be for sale at agency providing services)

Minimum Provider Qualifications

There are no education requirements for team members to be trained on the program.

Education and Training Resources

There is a manual that describes how to implement this program, and there is training available for this program.

Training Contact:
Training is obtained:

Training is only provided to multi-agency teams with parent partners; no individuals can be trained. The training of the teams may be delivered on-site through contract or regionally through training conferences. Training requires local implementation with whole families and active on-site supervision. Team Supervision of the multi-family group implementation, which is required as part of the training, must be on-site three times of the 8 weekly sessions (using Skype can be negotiated). Supervision involves direct observation and a quality of implementation checklist, and separate feedback to the team the next day for 3 hours. Training includes launch consulting and issue support provided by a Certified FAST® Trainer. Finally Training includes a pre and post evaluation process with questionnaires given to parents and teachers, and data entry and a 50-page report which the Certified FAST® Trainer reviews in the final day of training with the team. The team should also self-evaluate, hear feedback from service user parent graduates, and learn to read bars and graphs and see the statistically significant outcomes of their social intervention.

Number of days/hours:

All implementation team members must undergo six and one-half days of training, including a comprehensive two-day (16 hours) orientation to the program, provided by a Certified FAST® Trainer.

Implementation Information

Since FAST® - Elementary School Level is rated on the Scientific Rating Scale, information was requested from the program representative on available pre-implementation assessments, implementation tools, and/or fidelity measures.

Show implementation information...

Pre-Implementation Materials

There are pre-implementation materials to measure organizational or provider readiness for FAST® - Elementary School Level as listed below:

Pre-implementation tools consist of a Program Overview and in-person consultation with FAST® Training Staff.

Formal Support for Implementation

There is formal support available for implementation of FAST® - Elementary School Level as listed below:

Training is provided by Families and Schools Together, Inc. to multi-agency teams with parent partners; no individuals can be trained. The training of the teams may be delivered onsite or regionally through training conferences. A Certified FAST® Trainer provides team supervision of the multifamily group implementation, which is required as part of the training, and will be onsite for 3 of the 8 weekly sessions (using Skype can be negotiated). Trainer-provided supervision involves direct observation and measurement of program fidelity using a quality of implementation checklist, and separate feedback to the team the next day for 3 hours. Training includes launch consultation and issue support provided by a Certified FAST® Trainer. Finally, training includes a pre- and post-evaluation process with questionnaires given to parents and teachers, data entry, and a 50-page evaluation report which the Certified FAST® Trainer reviews with the team in the final day of training.

Fidelity Measures

There are fidelity measures for FAST® - Elementary School Level as listed below:

Fidelity measures include pre- and post-program surveys from parents and teachers, a follow-up evaluation report of program outcomes, the Program Integrity Checklist, and the Quality of Implementation Checklist.

Implementation Guides or Manuals

There are implementation guides or manuals for FAST® - Elementary School Level as listed below:

During training, a program manual and FAST® program forms are given to the team members.

Research on How to Implement the Program

Research has not been conducted on how to implement FAST® - Elementary School Level.

Relevant Published, Peer-Reviewed Research

This program is rated a "3 - Promising Research Evidence" on the Scientific Rating Scale based on the published, peer-reviewed research available. The practice must have at least one study utilizing some form of control (e.g., untreated group, placebo group, matched wait list study) establishing the practice's benefit over the placebo, or found it to be comparable to or better than an appropriate comparison practice. Please see the Scientific Rating Scale for more information.

Child Welfare Outcome: Child/Family Well-Being

Show relevant research...

McDonald, L., & Sayger, T. V. (1998). Impact of a family and school based prevention program on protective factors for high risk youth. Drugs & Society, 12, 61-85.

Type of Study: One group pretest-posttest
Number of Participants: 104 families

Population:

  • Age — Children: 6-12 years, Adults: Not specified
  • Race/Ethnicity — Children: Not specified, Adults: 71% African American, 22% European American, 4% Asian American, and 3% Hispanic American
  • Gender — Children: 56% Male, Adults: Not specified
  • Status — Participants were families of elementary school children referred to the Families and Schools Together (FAST) program for risk factors.

Location/Institution: Madison, WI

Summary: (To include comparison groups, outcomes, measures, notable limitations)
This study is an assessment of the effectiveness of the Families and Schools Together (FAST) program [now called FAST® - Elementary School Level] program, which is focused on youth behavior in the classroom and at home, family cohesion, parent behavior, empowerment, social support and involvement in school. Measures utilized include the Revised Behavior Problem Checklist (RBPC) and the Family Adaptability and Cohesion Evaluation Scale (FACES-III). Results showed significant levels of improvement in levels of conduct disorders, attention problems, anxiety and psychotic behavior, as well as improvements in family cohesion, but only for elementary school families. Limitations include nonrandomization of subjects and subject attrition rates. It is unclear from the article whether the study intervention included both the 8 weekly multifamily group sessions and the 2 years of monthly booster sessions which make up the current FAST® - Elementary School Level program.

Length of postintervention follow-up: 6 months and 2 years.

Fischer, R. L. (2003). School-based family support: Evidence from an exploratory field study. Families in Society, 84(3), 339-347.

Type of Study: One group pretest-posttest
Number of Participants: 427 Families

Population:

  • Age — Children: 4-12 years, Adult: 34 years approximately
  • Race/Ethnicity — Children: 64% African American, 24% White, 3% Hispanic, and 2% Other; Adult (Female only): 63.9% African American, 23.9% White, 2.6% Hispanic, 1.9% Other, and 7.7% Missing
  • Gender — Children: 59% Male and 41% Female, Adult: 86% Female
  • Status — Participants were families with children attending public elementary schools in Kindergarten through 5th grade referred by teachers or parents as at-risk for academic failure or other problems.

Location/Institution: Atlanta, GA

Summary: (To include comparison groups, outcomes, measures, notable limitations)
This study reports information from the Families and Schools Together (FAST) program [now called FAST® - Elementary School Level]. Measures utilized include the Behavior Problems Index (BPI), the Family Adaptability Cohesion Evaluation Scales, and the Parent Involvement and Family Support Survey. Results include significant decreases in problem behaviors for those children who showed severe or moderate levels of behavior problems at the beginning of the program. Additionally, children who had the fewest behavior problems showed a significant increase in problem behaviors. Limitations include the lack of a control/comparison group, nonrandomization of subjects, and concerns regarding self-selection of families. It is unclear from the article whether the study intervention included both the 8 weekly multi-family group sessions and the 2 years of monthly booster sessions which make up the current FAST® - Elementary School Level program.

Length of postintervention follow-up: None.

Kratochwill, T. R., McDonald, L., Levin, J. R., Young Bear-Tibbitts, H., & Demaray, M. K. (2004). Families and Schools Together: An experimental analysis of a parent-mediated multi-family group program for American Indian children. Journal of School Psychology, 42, 359-383.

Type of Study: Randomized controlled trial using matched pairs
Number of Participants: 50 families in each condition

Population:

  • Age — Children: Kindergarten through 2nd grade (approximately 4-8 years), Adults: Not specified
  • Race/Ethnicity — Children: 100% American Indian, Adults: Not specified
  • Gender — Children: Not specified, Adults: Not specified
  • Status — Participants were families with children attending reservation or public schools.

Location/Institution: Wisconsin

Summary: (To include comparison groups, outcomes, measures, notable limitations)
This article describes the Families and Schools Together (FAST) program [now called FAST® - Elementary School Level that assessed the social skills, behavior problems, and academic functioning of American Indian children. Children were matched on characteristics such as tribal heritage, school, grade level, and teacher ratings and then randomly assigned to either the 2-phase FAST program or the non-FAST control group. Measures utilized include the Child Behavior Checklist for 6-18 (CBCL), the Social Skills Rating System, the Ecobehavioral Assessment System, and the Curriculum-based measurement (CBM). Results show that, on the immediate posttest, statistically significant differences in improvement, favoring FAST participants were found on the Aggressive Behavior scale of the teacher-rated CBCL and on the parent-rated Withdrawn scale of the same instrument. On the 1-year follow-up assessment, parent CBCL ratings indicated that FAST students had maintained their less withdrawn status and teacher ratings on the Social Skills Rating Scale (SSRS) revealed that FAST participants had exhibited relatively greater improvement in their academic competence. Limitations include generalizability to other populations as adaptations were made for the American Indian culture and small sample size.

Length of postintervention follow-up: None (support groups were on-going at the time of the 9-12 month follow-up from baseline).

McDonald, L., Moberg, D. P., Brown, R., Rodriguez-Espiricueta, I., Flores, N. I., Burke, M. P., & Coover, G. (2006). After-school multifamily groups: A randomized controlled trial involving low-income, urban, Latino children. Children & Schools, 28(1), 25-34.

Type of Study: Randomized controlled trial
Number of Participants: 180

Population:

  • Age — Children: Mean=7 years, Adult: Not specified
  • Race/Ethnicity — Children: 100% Latino, Adult: Not specified
  • Gender — Children: 59% Female and 41% Male, Adult: Not specified
  • Status — Participants were families with children in one of 10 urban elementary schools in 1st through 4th grade.

Location/Institution: Milwaukee, Wisconsin

Summary: (To include comparison groups, outcomes, measures, notable limitations)
This study compared two programs, the Families and Schools Together (FAST) program [now called FAST® - Elementary School Level] and the FAME: Families Education, and their effectiveness in regards to evaluating parent engagement strategy with Latino parents of elementary school children. Ten urban schools serving low income children from mixed cultural backgrounds participated in a large study. Classrooms were randomly assigned either to a two-phase multifamily support group (FAST) or to receive eight behavioral parenting pamphlets with active follow-up (FAME). Measures utilized include the Teachers Report Form (TRF) of the Child Behavior Checklist (CBCL) and the Social Skills Rating System (SSRS). Results indicate children whose families participated in the FAST program showed higher levels of academic performance, social skills, and lower levels of aggressive behaviors than those in the FAME program. Limitations generalizability of these classroom results to all Latino immigrant populations, sample attrition for follow-up study, and comparability of the two study conditions.

Length of postintervention follow-up: None.

Warren, K., Moberg, P. D., & McDonald, L. (2006). FAST and the arms race: The interaction of group aggression and the “Families and School Together” program in the aggressive and delinquent behaviors of inner-city elementary school students. The Journal of Primary Prevention, 27(1), 27-45.

Type of Study: Randomized control trial
Number of Participants: 437

Population:

  • Age — Children: 1st-4th grade (approximately 5-10 years), Adult: Not specified
  • Race/Ethnicity — Children: 45% African American, 38% Latino, and 17% Other; Adults: Not specified
  • Gender — Children: 56% Female and 44% Male; Adults: Not specified
  • Status — Participants were families of elementary school children in 1st through 4th grade referred to the Families and Schools Together (FAST) or FAME program with aggressive or delinquent behaviors.

Location/Institution: Milwaukee, WI

Summary: (To include comparison groups, outcomes, measures, notable limitations)
This study applies a multiplayer arms race model to peer contagion (the tendency for peers to influence each other to become similar in behaviors or symptoms) in the aggressive and delinquent behaviors of inner-city elementary school students. Because this model of peer contagion differs from the usual model based on positive reinforcement of delinquent behavior, it raises the possibility that the persistent finding of inadvertent adverse effects of group treatment might not apply to group treatment of elementary school children if the possibility of aggressive behavior in the group is limited. One way of limiting aggressive behavior is to include parents in the groups. The study therefore applies the model to groups of elementary school students assigned to Families and Schools Together (FAST) program [now called FAST® - Elementary School Level] a group treatment that includes parental participation) or to an intervention focused on individual families. The model effectively describes the relationship between group averages of aggressive behavior in the classroom and aggressive and delinquent behavior outside the classroom for those students assigned to the individual intervention. The model fits those children assigned to FAST less well, suggesting that FAST may make it less likely that aggressive and delinquent behavior is generalized outside of aggressive classroom settings. Limitations include possible participant bias.

Length of postintervention follow-up: None.

Kratochwill, T. R., McDonald, L., Levin, J. R., Scalia, P. A., & Coover, G. (2009). Families and schools together: An experimental study of multi-family support groups for children at risk. Journal of School Psychology, 47(4), 245-265.

Type of Study: Randomized controlled trial using matched pairs
Number of Participants: 134

Population:

  • Age — Children: 1st-3rd grade (approximately 5-9 years), Adults: Not specified
  • Race/Ethnicity — Children: 40% Caucasian, 35% African American, 13% Asian, and 12% Latino; Adults: Not specified
  • Gender — Children: Not specified, Adults: Not specified
  • Status — Participants were families of elementary school children in 1st through 3rd grade in eight elementary schools serving low-income communities within the school district showing increased rates of children with serious emotional disturbances (SED).

Location/Institution: Virginia Beach, Virginia

Summary: (To include comparison groups, outcomes, measures, notable limitations)
This study evaluated the Families and Schools Together (FAST) program [now called FAST® - Elementary School Level] multifamily support group intervention program in elementary schools. Children were initially paired on the basis of five relevant matching variables, including teacher assessment of behavioral problems, and then randomly assigned to either ongoing school services (control) or the FAST Program. Parents and teachers completed pre-, post-, and 1-year follow-up assessments. Measures utilized include the Child Behavior Checklist for Ages 6-18 (CBCL), Teacher Report Form (TRF), the Social Skills Rating System (SSRS), the Family Adaptability and Cohesion Evaluation Scales (FACES), and the Family Support Scale (FSS). Results indicate follow-up parent reports showed that FAST Students declined less on a family adaptability measure relative to control group students, as well as FAST Parents reported statistically significant reductions in children's externalizing (aggressive) behaviors, as compared to the reports of control group parents. Limitations include the mixed recruitment process and small sample size. It is unclear from the article whether the study intervention included both the 8 weekly multifamily group sessions and the 2 years of monthly booster sessions which make up the current FAST® - Elementary School Level program.

Length of postintervention follow-up: None.

Crozier, M., Rokutani, L., Russett, J., Godwin, E., & Banks, G. (2010). A multisite program evaluation of Families and Schools Together (FAST): Continued evidence of a successful multifamily community-based prevention program. School Community Journal, 20(1), 187-207.

Type of Study: Multigroup pretest-posttest design
Number of Participants: 196 children and 187 parents

Population:

  • Age — Children: Mean=7.7 years, Parents: Mean=33.7 years
  • Race/Ethnicity — Children: 43% Caucasian, 37% African American, 10% Mixed Race, 6% Latino, 2% Native Islander or Native Hawaiian, 1% Asian, and 2% Other; Parents: 50% Caucasian, 34% African American, 8% Latino, 2% Asian, 1% Native Islander or Native Hawaiian, and 2% Other
  • Gender — Children: 56.7% Female and 43.3% Male, Parents: 89.1% Female and 10.9% Male
  • Status — Participants were families of elementary school children referred to Families and Schools Together (FAST) for problem behaviors.

Location/Institution: Virginia Beach, Virginia

Summary: (To include comparison groups, outcomes, measures, notable limitations)
This study examined existing data collected from individual Families and Schools Together (FAST) program [now called FAST® - Elementary School Level] evaluation results across multiple sites. Measures utilized include Family Environment Scale, Social Relationships Questionnaire, Self-Efficacy Scale, Parental Involvement in Education Scale, Strength and Difficulties Questionnaire, Substance Use Questionnaire, Social Support Instrument, and Reciprocal Support with Other Parents. Results indicate gains in the desired objectives of assisting participants in making improvement of family functioning, parental self-efficacy, and social connectedness, and parental knowledge of alcohol-, tobacco-, and other drug-related issues and substance use. Limitations include the lack of a control or comparison group.

Length of postintervention follow-up: None.

Gamoran, A., Turley, R. N. L., Turner, A., & Fish, R. (2012). Differences between Hispanic and non-Hispanic families in social capital and child development: First-year findings from an experimental study. Research in Social Stratification and Mobility, 30(1), 97-112.

Type of Study: Cluster-Randomized controlled trial
Number of Participants: 1300

Population:

  • Age — Children: Elementary school age (approximately 5-11 years); Adults: Not specified
  • Race/Ethnicity — Children: 77% Hispanic, 14% White, 8% African American and 1% Asian/Pacific Islander; Adults: Not specified
  • Gender — Not specified
  • Status — Participants were families who were recruited from elementary schools.

Location/Institution: Phoenix, Arizona and San Antonio, Texas

Summary: (To include comparison groups, outcomes, measures, notable limitations)
This study reports on the role of social capital through utilization of the Families and Schools Together (FAST) program for children in elementary schools [now called FAST® - Elementary School Level]. Schools were randomly assigned to one of the two cohorts, and then they were randomly assigned to treatment and control groups, resulting in Cohort 1 consisting of 12 FAST and 12 comparison schools and Cohort 2 consisting of 14 FAST and 14 comparison schools. Measures utilized include the Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire (SDQ). Results indicate surveys prior to FAST confirm that Hispanic parents have less extensive parent–school networks compared to non-Hispanic Whites. Comparisons of school means on post-FAST surveys indicate that parents in FAST schools experience more extensive social networks than those in control schools, but the differences are much more apparent in Phoenix than in San Antonio. Similarly, a pattern of better behavioral outcomes for children in FAST schools is evident in Phoenix but not San Antonio. Individual-level comparisons suggest that for some outcomes, effects may be larger for non-Hispanic Whites than for Hispanics, which would undermine potential contributions to reducing inequality. Limitations include that only half the data are available because the FAST intervention has been implemented in only the first 12 of the 26 treatment schools, generalizability due to ethnicity, and lack of follow-up.

Length of postintervention follow-up: None.

Shoji, M. N., Haskins, A. R., Rangel, D. E., & Sorensen, K. N. (2014). The emergence of social capital in low-income Latino elementary schools. Early Childhood Research Quarterly, 29(4), 600-613.

Type of Study: Cluster-Randomized controlled trial
Number of Participants: 29

Population:

  • Age — Children: Elementary School Age (approximately 5-11 years), Adults: Not specified
  • Race/Ethnicity — Children: Not specified, Adults: 75% Hispanic
  • Gender — Children: Not specified, Adults: 80% Female
  • Status — Participants were families who were recruited from elementary schools.

Location/Institution: Phoenix, Arizona and San Antonio, Texas

Summary: (To include comparison groups, outcomes, measures, notable limitations)
This study reports on mechanisms of social capital emergence in predominantly low-income Latino school communities through utilization of the Families and Schools Together (FAST) program for children in elementary schools [now called FAST® - Elementary School Level]. Information was utilized from a previous study (Gamoran, McDonald, & Turley, 2005) that manipulated social capital through an afterschool family engagement program. Four types of interactions that act as mechanisms of social capital emergence: (1) responsive communication; (2) reciprocal communication; (3) shared experiences; and (4) institutional linkage. Measure utilized includes the Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire (SDQ). Data comes from the first year of the Children, Families, and Schools (CFS) study, a cluster-randomized controlled trial of the FAST intervention targeted to first graders and their families in 52 low-income schools. Results indicate a sense of group membership and belonging (bounded solidarity), repeated and reciprocated social exchange (reciprocity exchanges), and the adoption of values to which one is exposed (value introjection) all appeared to encourage social capital in these school communities. Limitations include small sample size, lack of follow-up and limited coverage of individual experiences that would be more fully illuminated through in-depth interviews.

Length of postintervention follow-up: None.

References

McDonald, L. (2002). Evidence-based, family-strengthening strategies to reduce delinquency: FAST -- Families and Schools Together. In A. R. Roberts & G. J. Green (Eds.), Social workers' desk reference (pp. 717-722). New York: Oxford University Press.

McDonald, L., & Frey, H. (1999). Families and Schools Together: Building relationships. Juvenile Justice Bulletin, NCJ173423: Washington, DC.

Contact Information

Name: Carol Goedken
Title: CEO/Executive Director
Agency/Affiliation: Families and Schools Together, Inc.
Website: www.familiesandschools.org
Email:
Phone: (888) 629-2481
Fax: (608) 663-2336

Date Research Evidence Last Reviewed by CEBC: July 2017

Date Program Content Last Reviewed by Program Staff: July 2015

Date Program Originally Loaded onto CEBC: June 2013