Nurturing Parenting Program for Parents and their School-age Children 5 to 12 Years

Scientific Rating:
3
Promising Research Evidence
See scale of 1-5
Child Welfare System Relevance Level:
High
See descriptions of 3 levels

About This Program

The information in this program outline is provided by the program representative and edited by the CEBC staff. Nurturing Parenting Program for Parents and their School-age Children 5 to 12 Years has been rated by the CEBC in the areas of: Prevention of Child Abuse and Neglect (Secondary) Programs, Parent Training Programs that Address Child Abuse and Neglect and Interventions for Abusive Behavior.

Target Population: Families who have been reported to the child welfare system for child maltreatment including physical and emotional maltreatment in addition to child neglect; may be used as a court-ordered parenting program

For children/adolescents ages: 5 – 12

For parents/caregivers of children ages: 5 – 12

Brief Description

The Nurturing Parenting Program for Parents and their School Age Children 5 to 12 Years is a 15-session program that is group-based, and family-centered. Parents and their children attend separate groups that meet concurrently. Each session is scheduled for 2.5 hours with a 20-minute break in which parents and children get together and have fun.

The lessons in the program are based on the known parenting behaviors that contribute to child maltreatment:

  • Inappropriate parental expectations
  • Parental lack of empathy in meeting the needs of their children
  • Strong belief in the use of corporal punishment
  • Reversing parent-child family roles
  • Oppressing children’s power and independence

Assessment (pre, process, and post) of parent’s parenting and child rearing beliefs, knowledge, and skills allows the program facilitators to measure the attainment of lesson competencies.

Program Goals:

The overall goals of Nurturing Parenting Program for Parents and their School-age Children 5 to 12 Years are:

  • Measurable gains in the individual self-worth of parents and children
  • Measurable gains in parental empathy and meeting their own adult needs in healthy ways
  • Measurable gains in parental empathy towards meeting the needs of their children
  • Utilization of dignified, non-violent disciplinary strategies and practices
  • Measurable gains in empowerment of the parents and their children
  • Measurable gains in nurturing parenting beliefs, knowledge, and utilization of skills and strategies as measured by program assessment inventories
  • Reunification of parents and their children who are in foster care
  • High rate of attendance and completion of their program
  • Reduction in rates of recidivism of program graduates

Essential Components

The essential components of Nurturing Parenting Program for Parents and their School-age Children 5 to 12 Years include:

  • Parents complete two inventories at the beginning and end of the program:
    • The Adult-Adolescent Parenting Inventory (AAPI-2) is a norm referenced inventory designed to assess parenting beliefs in five parenting practices recognized as contributing to child maltreatment:
      • Inappropriate developmental expectations of children
      • Lack of parental empathy towards children’s needs
      • Strong parental belief in the use of physical punishment
      • Reversing parent-child family roles
      • Oppressing Children’s power and independence.
    • The Nurturing Skills Competency Scale (NSCS) is a criterion reference inventory designed to gather information in six areas:
      • Current parental life conditions
      • Childhood history
      • Relationship with partner
      • Relationship with children
      • Knowledge of nurturing parenting practices
      • Utilization of nurturing parenting skills
  • Parents and facilitator meet to review the results of the assessments:
    • Parenting strengths and deficiencies are discussed.
    • Lessons in the program are reviewed to ensure parenting deficiencies are being covered.
  • Lessons are competency-based:
    • Each lesson has measurable competencies.
    • Parents and facilitator review the competencies at the beginning of the session.
    • Parents evaluate how well they learned the competencies.
    • Lessons are repeated for parents who have not learned the lesson competencies.
  • Lessons that comprise the parent portion of the program (more than one lesson is taught per session):
    • Children’s Brain development
    • Nurturing as a Lifestyle
    • Ages and Stages of Development
    • Developing Empathy in Parents and Children
    • Meeting our Needs and the Needs of our Children
    • Recognizing and Understanding Feelings
    • Helping Your Children Handle their Feelings
    • Improving Your Children’s Self Worth
    • Developing Personal Power in Children and Adults
    • Understanding Discipline
    • Red, White and Bruises: Why Parents Spank
    • Developing Family Morals and Values
    • Developing Family Rules
    • Rewarding Children and their Behavior
    • Punishments for Inappropriate Behavior
    • Praise for Being and Doing
    • Establishing Nurturing Parenting Routines
    • Our Bodies and Sex
    • Personal Space and Saying “No”
    • Keeping our Children Safe
    • Managing Anger
    • Alternatives to Spanking
    • Ignoring Inappropriate Behavior
    • Possessive and Violent Relationships
    • Families and Alcohol
    • Keeping Kids Drug Free
    • Criticism and Confrontation
    • Problem Solving, Decision Making, Negotiation, and Compromise
    • People, Possessions, and Self-Talk
  • Activities and lessons that comprise the child portion of the program (more than one lesson or activity occurs per session):
    • Making Classroom Rules
    • Picture Myself and My Family
    • Getting to Know You
    • Me Mobile
    • Circle Time: Learning to use “I Messages” to Communicate Feelings
    • Art Activity: Making a Silhouette of Me
    • I’m Someone Special Discussion and Art Activity
    • Nurturing Board Game
    • Nurturing Coloring Books
    • Circle Time: Using My Personal Power
    • Art Activity: Making Personal Power Vests
    • Circle Time: Praise and Criticism
    • Art Activity: Warm Fuzzies and Cold Pricklies
    • Circle Time: Strength Bombardment
    • Circle Time: Gentle and Hurting Touch
    • Art Activity: Putting Our best Foot Forward Foot Mural
    • Art Activity: Giant Self-Drawing
    • Circle Time: Morals and Values: Doing the Right and Wrong Thing
    • Circle Time: Choices and Consequences
    • Art Activity: Shaving Cream
    • Art Activity: Making a Group Hand Mural
    • Art Activity: Finger Painting
    • Circle Time: Owning our Bodies
    • Circle Time: Saying No
    • Circle Time: Keeping Secrets
    • Circle Time: Staying Safe
    • Circle Time: Telling Others
    • Circle Time: Handling Bullies
    • Circle Time: Don’t Keep it to Yourself
    • Circle Time: Expressing our Anger
    • Circle Time: How to Express our Anger Energy
    • Art Activity: Anger Masks
    • Circle Time: Saying No to Drugs and Yes to Life
    • Circle Time: Sex, Sexuality, STD’s and AIDS (for older children when appropriate)
    • Circle Time: Saying Goodbye to our Friends

Child/Adolescent Services

Nurturing Parenting Program for Parents and their School-age Children 5 to 12 Years directly provides services to children/adolescents and addresses the following:

  • Oppressed affect, low self-worth, lack of empowerment, bully-like or victim-like behaviors, overly clingy or withdrawn behavior, and separation anxiety

Parent/Caregiver Services

Nurturing Parenting Program for Parents and their School-age Children 5 to 12 Years directly provides services to parents/caregivers and addresses the following:

  • Attachment issues between parent and child, abusive disciplinary practices, neglecting children’s basic needs, lack of supervision, oppressing children’s power and independence
Services Involve Family/Support Structures:

This program involves the family or other support systems in the individual's treatment: Extended family members are invited to participate in the group sessions when appropriate.

Delivery Setting

This program is typically conducted in a(n):

  • Community Agency

Homework

Nurturing Parenting Program for Parents and their School-age Children 5 to 12 Years includes a homework component:

Lesson-focused assignments that address the need to practice new skills are given.

Languages

Nurturing Parenting Program for Parents and their School-age Children 5 to 12 Years has materials available in languages other than English:

Arabic, Chinese, Haitian Creole, Hmong, Spanish

For information on which materials are available in these languages, please check on the program's website or contact the program representative (contact information is listed at the bottom of this page).

Resources Needed to Run Program

The typical resources for implementing the program are:

Space needs are a room capable of seating 15 adults comfortably; a large room for the children’s program, preferably in a day care/nursery setting; DVD player and monitor, flip chart/white board. Two facilitators are required to implement the adult program and two additional facilitators are required to implement the children’s program; depending on the number of children attending, additional staff may be required.

Minimum Provider Qualifications

There is no minimum educational level requirement for being trained on the program, but experience facilitating adult groups and children’s groups and knowledge of developmental skills for children 5 to 12 years is required.

Education and Training Resources

There is a manual that describes how to implement this program, and there is training available for this program.

Training Contact:
Training is obtained:

Onsite, if desired, or regional area trainings.

Number of days/hours:

Three days for 7 hours a day

Implementation Information

Since Nurturing Parenting Program for Parents and their School-age Children 5 to 12 Years is rated on the Scientific Rating Scale, information was requested from the program representative on available pre-implementation assessments, implementation tools, and/or fidelity measures.

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Pre-Implementation Materials

There are no pre-implementation materials to measure organizational or provider readiness for Nurturing Parenting Program for Parents and their School-age Children 5 to 12 Years.

Formal Support for Implementation

There is formal support available for implementation of Nurturing Parenting Program for Parents and their School-age Children 5 to 12 Years as listed below:

Family Development Resources provides technical assistance in purchasing the appropriate program materials, setting up the online assessment site, and implementing the programs, and provides consultation in resolving issues that arise. Consultation is free of charge. Customers can e-mail or call toll free: 800 688-5822.

Fidelity Measures

There are no fidelity measures for Nurturing Parenting Program for Parents and their School-age Children 5 to 12 Years.

Implementation Guides or Manuals

There are implementation guides or manuals for Nurturing Parenting Program for Parents and their School-age Children 5 to 12 Years as listed below:

An implementation manual is available and contains useful information and assessments designed to assist in recruiting parents and advertising availability of program in the community. There are checklists to help ensure proper materials are on hand. The manual can be purchased online at www.nurturingparenting.com. Contact person at Family Development is Robert Schramm at fdr@nurturingparenting.com.

Research on How to Implement the Program

Research has not been conducted on how to implement Nurturing Parenting Program for Parents and their School-age Children 5 to 12 Years.

Relevant Published, Peer-Reviewed Research

This program is rated a "3 - Promising Research Evidence" on the Scientific Rating Scale based on the published, peer-reviewed research available. The practice must have at least one study utilizing some form of control (e.g., untreated group, placebo group, matched wait list study) establishing the practice's benefit over the placebo, or found it to be comparable to or better than an appropriate comparison practice. Please see the Scientific Rating Scale for more information.

Child Welfare Outcomes: Safety and Child/Family Well-Being

Show relevant research...

Cowen, P. S. (2001). Effectiveness of a parent education intervention for at-risk families. Journal of the Society of Pediatric Nursing, 6(2), 73-82.

Type of Study: One group pretest-posttest study
Number of Participants: 154 families

Population:

  • Age — Not specified
  • Race/Ethnicity — 92% white
  • Gender — Not specified
  • Status — Participants were self-referred families, families in crisis, and families court-referred for mandatory attendance.

Location/Institution: National Committee for the Prevention of Child Abuse, Iowa Chapter

Summary: (To include comparison groups, outcomes, measures, notable limitations)
This study examined parents attending the Nurturing Parenting Program (former name of Nurturing Parenting Program for Parents and their School-age Children 5 to 12 Years). Measures included the Adult-Adolescent Parenting Inventory, which is designed to measure attitudes about childrearing practices. Posttest scores showed statistically significant improvements in inappropriate expectations, low empathy, strong belief in value of punishment, and role reversal. Limitations include the lack of a control group and that a substantial percentage of available families did not fully participate or provided incomplete data.

Length of postintervention follow-up: None.

Devall, E. L. (2004). Positive parenting for high-risk families. Journal of Family and Consumer Sciences, 96(4), 22-28.

Type of Study: One group pretest-posttest study
Number of Participants: 323 parents

Population:

  • Age — 14-70 years, Median=27 years
  • Race/Ethnicity — 60% Hispanic, 21% European American, 10% Native American, 4% African American, and 3% Asian American or other
  • Gender — 40% Male
  • Status — Participants were at-risk families, including teen parents, unmarried parents, single or divorce parents, foster parents, parents referred by social services, families with substance abuse issues, and incarcerated parents.

Location/Institution: New Mexico

Summary: (To include comparison groups, outcomes, measures, notable limitations)
The Nurturing Parenting Program (former name of Nurturing Parenting Program for Parents and their School-age Children 5 to 12 Years) was offered in schools, community centers, public health offices, family resource centers and in prisons for incarcerated parents. Measures included the Adult-Adolescent Parenting Inventory, the Nurturing Quiz, and the Family Social History Questionnaire. Post-test results showed improvement on inappropriate expectations, empathy, belief in corporal punishment and role-reversal. Scores on the Nurturing Quiz also improved significantly. Limitations include the lack of a control group and low rates of completion for the entire curriculum.

Length of postintervention follow-up: None.

Vespo, J. E., Capece, D., & Behforooz, B. (2006). Effects of the nurturing curriculum on social, emotional, and academic behaviors in kindergarten classrooms. Journal of Research in Childhood Education, 20(4). 275-285.

Type of Study: Nonequivalent control group design
Number of Participants: 143 (135 children and 8 adults)

Population:

  • Age — Children - Kindergartners
  • Race/Ethnicity — Children in the two intervention schools: 54.2% and 56.5% White, 28.9% and 30.6% African American, 11.7% and 10.5% Hispanic, and 5.3% and 2.5% Asian
  • Gender — Children - 75 Females and 65 Males
  • Status — Participants were children and teachers from an inner city school district.

Location/Institution: Northeastern United States

Summary: (To include comparison groups, outcomes, measures, notable limitations)
The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness of the Nurturing Parenting Program (former name of Nurturing Parenting Program for Parents and their School-age Children 5 to 12 Years) on children in a kindergarten classroom. Kindergarten teachers at two selected school sites were trained in Nurturing Parenting. Children in the targeted classes where compared to 14 children who attended the same school in the year prior to the study. Measures utilized include the Teacher Checklist of Social Behavior. Results indicate that the Nurturing Curriculum was associated with improvement in social and emotional behaviors. Limitations include the limited nature of the control group, nonrandomization of school or teachers to the intervention, and the small sample size. Note: Since the study did not involve any intervention with parents, this study was not used in rating for the Parent Training Programs that Address Child Abuse and Neglect topic area.

Length of postintervention follow-up: None.

Brock, D. J. P., Marek, L. I., Kerney, C. M., & Bagby, T. (2013). Open groups: Adaptations in implementing a parent training program. Health Promotion Perspectives, 3(2), 230-241.

Type of Study: Nonequivalent control group design
Number of Participants: 225 enrolled; 129 completed at least 80% of the offered sessions and were used in the analyses

Population:

  • Age — 13-50+ years
  • Race/Ethnicity — 75% Caucasian, 22% African-American, 2% Hispanic, and 1% Other
  • Gender — 69% Female
  • Status — Participants for both formats were recruited through advertising in local newspapers and radio stations, flyers distributed to public places, and brochures and class information distributed at various community agencies/organizations.

Location/Institution: Virginia

Summary: (To include comparison groups, outcomes, measures, notable limitations)
The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness of the Nurturing Parenting Program (Nurturing Program for Parents and their School-age Children 5 to 12 Years) in two different formats – the typical closed-group format or an open-group format that allows for on-going admission. Participants for both formats were recruited through similar means and the format placement for each family was determined by the immediacy of the need for an intervention, the time lapse until a new cycle would begin, and scheduling flexibility. Measures included the Adult Adolescent Parenting Inventory-version 2 (AAPI-2). Analyses showed that, though open groups contained higher risk families, parental outcome improvements were significant for both groups. All participants, regardless of group membership, demonstrated statistically significant improvements following completion of the program. There were significant differences found in terms of retention rates, with open group members being significantly less likely to complete the sessions (44% versus 76% in the closed group). Limitations include the differences between the two groups at baseline, differences between the intervention delivered in the two groups (the open-group format did not include the child component of the program, while the closed-group format did), and the high attrition rates in the open-group sample.

Length of postintervention follow-up: None.

References

Bavolek, S. J., (n.d.). Assessment, evaluation and research: Examining parenting history, beliefs, knowledge and skills. Retrieved from http://nurturingparenting.com/ecommerce/category.i?cmd=searchlist

Bavolek, S. J., (2014). Nurturing Parenting Programs facilitator training workbook and program implementation guide. Retrieved from http://nurturingparenting.com/images/cmsfiles/npw16final12-20-2013.pdf

Bavolek, S. J., (n.d.). Parents & their school-age children 5-11 years - Activities manual for parents. Retrieved from http://nurturingparenting.com/shop/p/32/Parents%20&%20Their%20School-Age%20Children%205-11%20Years%20-%20Activities%20Manual%20for%20Parents%20(NP1AMP)

Contact Information

Name: Robert Schramm
Agency/Affiliation: Family Development Resources, Inc.
Website: nurturingparenting.com/ecommerce/category/1:3:2
Email:
Phone: (800) 688-5822
Fax: (435) 649-9599

Date Research Evidence Last Reviewed by CEBC: September 2015

Date Program Content Last Reviewed by Program Staff: January 2015

Date Program Originally Loaded onto CEBC: April 2014