Prolonged Exposure Therapy for PTSD for Adults (PE)

Scientific Rating:
1
Well-Supported by Research Evidence
See scale of 1-5
Child Welfare System Relevance Level:
Medium
See descriptions of 3 levels

About This Program

The information in this program outline is provided by the program representative and edited by the CEBC staff. Prolonged Exposure Therapy for PTSD for Adults (PE) has been rated by the CEBC in the area of: Trauma Treatment (Adult).

Target Population: Adults with a variety of traumas such as combat, sexual assault, car accidents, violent crimes, and acts of terrorism

Brief Description

PE consists of 8 -15 treatment sessions that are 60-90 minutes each. Clients are encouraged to repeatedly approach situations or activities they are avoiding because they remind them of their trauma (in vivo exposure) as well as to revisit the traumatic memory through retelling it (imaginal exposure). Psychoeducation about common reactions to trauma as well as breathing retraining exercises are also included in the treatment. The aim of in vivo and imaginal exposure is to help clients emotionally process their traumatic memories through the imaginal and in vivo exposures. Through these procedures, clients learn that they can safely remember the trauma and experience trauma reminders, that the distress that initially resulted from confrontations with these reminders decreases over time, and that they are capable of tolerating this distress. Prolonged Exposure Therapy for Adolescents (PE-A) is also highlighted on the CEBC website in the Trauma Treatment - Client-Level Interventions (Child & Adolescent) topic area, please click here to see that entry.

Program Goals:

The overall goals of Prolonged Exposure Therapy for PTSD for Adults (PE) are:

  • Promote the clients’ ability to emotionally process their traumatic experiences
  • Diminish PTSD and other trauma-related symptoms including depression, general anxiety, anger, and guilt
  • Improve social functioning and physical health

Essential Components

The essential components of Prolonged Exposure Therapy for PTSD for Adults (PE) include:

  • Delivering rationales to the client for the treatment program, in vivo exposure, and imaginal exposure in order to increase client understanding of the treatment components and how they will help diminish PTSD symptoms
  • Creating an in vivo exposure hierarchy together with the client and guiding the client in implementing in vivo exposures to trauma reminders and situations that feel unsafe as a result of the trauma
  • Conducting repeated and prolonged imaginal exposure to the trauma memory with the client, where the client is asked to recall and retell the trauma memory
  • Delivering psychoeducation regarding common reactions to trauma
  • Teaching breathing retraining exercise that can help patients to feel more calm

Adult Services

Prolonged Exposure Therapy for PTSD for Adults (PE) directly provides services to adults (regardless of whether they are parents or caregivers) and addresses the following:

  • Posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD)

Delivery Settings

This program is typically conducted in a(n):

  • Community Agency
  • Outpatient Clinic
  • Residential Care Facility

Homework

Prolonged Exposure Therapy for PTSD for Adults (PE) includes a homework component:

Clients are asked to do homework after each session of treatment. Homework consists of reading summaries of the information presented in the session and sharing it with family members (as appropriate), completing in vivo exercises, and completing imaginal exposure homework.

Languages

Prolonged Exposure Therapy for PTSD for Adults (PE) has materials available in languages other than English:

Japanese, Spanish

For information on which materials are available in these languages, please check on the program's website or contact the program representative (contact information is listed at the bottom of this page).

Resources Needed to Run Program

The typical resources for implementing the program are:

A quiet room with no interruptions or distractions as is required by any therapy is necessary to implement the program. Digital voice recorders or use of the PE Coach application for Android and Apple phones are required for audio recording treatment sessions for use as part the client’s homework.

Minimum Provider Qualifications

Licensed mental health professionals or those working under the supervision of a licensed mental health professional which can include psychologists, social workers, and nurses.

Education and Training Resources

There is a manual that describes how to implement this program, and there is training available for this program.

Training Contact:
Training is obtained:

Training is provided in Philadelphia twice yearly. Training can also be provided on site.

Number of days/hours:

4 full days (32 hours)

Implementation Information

Since Prolonged Exposure Therapy for PTSD for Adults (PE) is rated on the Scientific Rating Scale, information was requested from the program representative on available pre-implementation assessments, implementation tools, and/or fidelity measures.

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Pre-Implementation Materials

There are no pre-implementation materials to measure organizational or provider readiness for Prolonged Exposure Therapy for PTSD for Adults (PE).

Formal Support for Implementation

There is formal support available for implementation of Prolonged Exposure Therapy for PTSD for Adults (PE) as listed below:

After completion of the intensive 4-day workshop in PE therapy, participants may participate in case consultation to solidify their skills in delivering PE and gain confidence in implementing the treatment. Certification as a PE therapist is offered after completion of 2 full PE cases. Please contact the program representative for more information on PE consultation.

An online listserv is also available to participants of the intensive 4-day workshop.

Fidelity Measures

There are fidelity measures for Prolonged Exposure Therapy for PTSD for Adults (PE) as listed below:

Fidelity measures for PE have been developed for use by raters trained in PE to monitor adherence to PE protocols in research studies. They are designed to determine adherence to all required Therapy Elements as well as to assess relevant Therapist Factors that could affect the outcome of the treatment. In this system, these two areas of concentration determine the total overall adherence and competency for each PE therapy session. Fidelity measures for PE can be obtained by contacting the program representative.

Implementation Guides or Manuals

There are implementation guides or manuals for Prolonged Exposure Therapy for PTSD for Adults (PE) as listed below:

  • Foa, E. B., Hembree, E. A., & Rothbaum, B. O. (2007). Prolonged Exposure Therapy for PTSD: Emotional processing of traumatic experiences – Therapist guide. New York: Oxford University Press.
  • Rothbaum, B. O., Foa, E. B., & Hembree, E. A. (2007). Reclaiming your life from a traumatic experience: Workbook. New York: Oxford University Press.

Research on How to Implement the Program

Research has been conducted on how to implement Prolonged Exposure Therapy for PTSD for Adults (PE) as listed below:

  • Foa, E. B., Gillihan, S. J., & Bryant, R. A. (2013). Challenges and successes in dissemination of evidence-based treatments for posttraumatic stress: Lessons learned from Prolonged Exposure Therapy for PTSD. Psychological Science in the Public Interest, 14(2), 65-111.

Relevant Published, Peer-Reviewed Research

This program is rated a "1 - Well-Supported by Research Evidence" on the Scientific Rating Scale based on the published, peer-reviewed research available. The program must have at least two rigorous randomized controlled trials with one showing a sustained effect of at least 1 year. The article(s) below that reports outcomes from an RCT showing a sustained effect of at least 1 year has an asterisk (*) at the beginning of its entry. Please see the Scientific Rating Scale for more information.

Child Welfare Outcome: Child/Family Well-Being

Show relevant research...

A meta-analysis has been conducted on Prolonged Exposure Therapy for PTSD for Adults (PE):

  • Powers, M. B., Halpern, J. M., Ferenschak, M. P., Gillihan, S. J., & Foa, E. B. (2010). A meta-analytic review of prolonged exposure for posttraumatic stress disorder. Clinical Psychology Review, 30, 635-641.

When more than 10 research articles have been published in peer-reviewed journals, the CEBC reviews all of the articles as part of the rating process and identifies the 10 most relevant articles, with a focus on randomized controlled trials (RCTs) and controlled studies that have an impact on the rating. The 10 articles chosen for Prolonged Exposure Therapy for PTSD for Adults (PE) are summarized below:

Foa, E. B., Rothbaum, B. O., Riggs, D. S., & Murdock, T. B. (1991). Treatment of posttraumatic stress disorder in rape victims: A comparison between cognitive- behavioral procedures and counseling. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 59(5), 715−723.

Type of Study: Randomized controlled trial
Number of Participants: 45

Population:

  • Age — Mean=31.8 years
  • Race/Ethnicity — 72.7% White, 25% Black, and 2.3% Hispanic
  • Gender — 100% Female
  • Status — Participants were recruited through referrals from local professionals and victim assistance agencies, recruitment by local newspaper advertisements, and from a separate assessment study of the response to rape.

Location/Institution: Department of Psychiatry, Medical College of Pennsylvania

Summary: (To include comparison groups, outcomes, measures, notable limitations)
Rape victims with posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) were randomly assigned to 1 of 4 conditions: Stress Inoculation Training (SIT), Prolonged Exposure (PE) [now called Prolonged Exposure Therapy for PTSD for Adults (PE)], supportive counseling (SC), or wait-list control (WL). Measures, including the Rape Aftermath Symptom Test (RAST), Slate-Trait Anxiety Inventory (STAl), and Beck Depression Inventory (BDI), were administered at pretreatment, posttreatment, and follow-up. All conditions produced improvement on all measures immediately posttreatment and at follow-up. However, SIT produced significantly more improvement on PTSD symptoms than did SC and WL immediately following treatment. At follow-up, PE produced superior outcome on PTSD symptoms. Limitations include small sample size, low recruitment rates, and concerns about generalizability.

Length of postintervention follow-up: Mean=3.5 months.

*Foa, E. B., Dancu, C. V., Hembree, E. A., Jaycox, L. H., Meadows, E. A., & Street, G. P. (1999). A comparison of exposure therapy, Stress Inoculation Training, and their combination for reducing posttraumatic stress disorder in female assault victims. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 67(2), 194.

Type of Study: Randomized controlled trial
Number of Participants: 96

Population:

  • Age — Mean=34.9 years
  • Race/Ethnicity — 63% Caucasian and 36% African American
  • Gender — 100% Female
  • Status — Participants were female victims of sexual and nonsexual assault with chronic posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD).

Location/Institution: Not stated

Summary: (To include comparison groups, outcomes, measures, notable limitations)
This study studied assault victims with chronic PTSD that were assigned to 4 treatment conditions: Prolonged Exposure (PE) [now called Prolonged Exposure Therapy for PTSD for Adults (PE)], Stress Inoculation Training (SIT), combined treatment (PE-SIT), or wait-list control (WL). Measures utilized include the Structured Clinical Interview for DSM–IV Axis I Disorders With Psychotic Screen (SCID), the PTSD Symptom Scale—Interview (PSS-I), the Beck Depression Inventory (BDI), Social Adjustment Scale (SAS), and State-Trait Anxiety Inventory (STAI). Results indicate all 3 active treatments reduced severity of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and depression compared with WL, but did not differ significantly from each other, and these gains were maintained throughout the follow-up period. However, in the intent-to-treat sample, PE was superior to SIT and PE-SIT on posttreatment anxiety and global social adjustment at follow-up and had larger effect sizes on PTSD severity, depression, and anxiety. SIT and PE-SIT did not differ significantly from each other on any outcome measure. Limitations include differences in dropout rates between the treatment groups.

Length of postintervention follow-up: 3, 6, and 12 months.

Resick, P. A., Nishith, P., Weaver, T. L., Astin, M. C., & Feuer, C. A. (2002). A comparison of Cognitive-Processing Therapy with Prolonged Exposure and a waiting condition for the treatment of chronic posttraumatic stress disorder in female rape victims. Journal of Counseling and Clinical Psychology, 70(4), 867-879.

Type of Study: Randomized controlled trial
Number of Participants: 171

Population:

  • Age — Mean=32 years
  • Race/Ethnicity — 71% White, 25% African American, and 4% Other
  • Gender — 100% Female
  • Status — Participants were female rape victims.

Location/Institution: Not specified

Summary: (To include comparison groups, outcomes, measures, notable limitations)
The purpose of this study was to compare Cognitive-Processing Therapy (CPT) with Prolonged Exposure (PE) [now called Prolonged Exposure Therapy for PTSD for Adults (PE)] and a minimal attention condition (MA) for the treatment of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and depression. Subjects were randomly assigned to one of the three groups. Measures utilized the Clinician-Administered PTSD Scale (CAPS), the Structured Interview for DSM–IV—Patient Version (SCID), Standardized Trauma Interview, the PTSD Symptom Scale, the Structured Clinical Interview for DSM–IV, the Beck Depression Inventory, the Trauma-Related Guilt Inventory (TRGI), and the Expectancy of Therapeutic Outcome Scale. Results indicated that CPT and PE treatments were superior to MA. The 2 therapies had similar results except that CPT produced better scores on 2 of 4 guilt subscales. Among those who completed the treatments as designed, the effect sizes for both treatments were quite large. There was a slight advantage in effect sizes and end-state functioning favoring CPT over PE through the 3-month follow-up. Limitations include concerns regarding generalization beyond rape traumas.

Length of postintervention follow-up: 3 months, some women also received a 9-month follow-up.

*Foa, E. B., Hembree, E. A., Cahill, S. P., Rauch, S. A., Riggs, D. S., Feeny, N. C., & Yadin, E. (2005). Randomized trial of Prolonged Exposure for posttraumatic stress disorder with and without cognitive restructuring: Outcome at academic and community clinics. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 73(5), 953.

Type of Study: Randomized controlled trial
Number of Participants: 171

Population:

  • Age — Mean=31 years
  • Race/Ethnicity — 88 Caucasian, 78 African American, and 13 Other
  • Gender — 100% Female
  • Status — Participants were female assault survivors with chronic posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD).

Location/Institution: Center for the Treatment and Study of Anxiety (CTSA), or through Women Organized Against Rape (WOAR)

Summary: (To include comparison groups, outcomes, measures, notable limitations)
This study examined Prolonged Exposure (PE) [now called Prolonged Exposure Therapy for PTSD for Adults (PE)] alone, PE plus cognitive restructuring (PE/CR), or wait-list (WL) for participants who suffered from PTSD. Measures utilized include the Structured Clinical Interview for DSM–IV Axis I Disorders With Psychotic Screen, the PTSD Symptom Scale—Interview (PSS), the Beck Depression Inventory (BDI), Social Adjustment Scale (SAS), and PTSD Symptom Scale—Self-Report (PSS–SR). Results indicated that both treatments reduced PTSD and depression in intent-to-treat and completer samples compared with the WL condition; social functioning improved in the completer sample. The addition of CR did not enhance treatment outcome. No site differences were found and treatment in the hands of counselors with minimal Cognitive-Behavioral Therapy (CBT) experience was as efficacious as that of CBT experts. Treatment gains were maintained at follow-up, although a minority of patients received additional treatment. Limitations include lack of control group and generalizability to other population groups.

Length of postintervention follow-up: 3, 6, and 12 months.

Rothbaum, B. O., Astin, M. C., & Marsteller, F. (2005). Prolonged Exposure versus Eye Movement Desensitization and Reprocessing (EMDR) for PTSD rape victims. Journal of Traumatic Stress, 18, 607-616.

Type of Study: Controlled clinical trial
Number of Participants: 74

Population:

  • Age — Mean=33.8 years
  • Race/Ethnicity — 68.3% Caucasian
  • Gender — 100% Female
  • Status — Participants were individuals with posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD).

Location/Institution: Not specified

Summary: (To include comparison groups, outcomes, measures, notable limitations)
This study evaluated the efficacy of Prolonged Exposure (PE) [now called Prolonged Exposure Therapy for PTSD for Adults (PE)] and Eye Movement Desensitization and Reprocessing (EMDR) compared to a no-treatment waitlist control (WAIT) in the treatment of PTSD in adult female rape victims. Measures utilized include the Clinician-Administered PTSD Scale (CAPS), the Assault Information Interview (AII), the Stressful Life Events Screening Questionnaire (SLESQ), the Structured Clinical Interview for DSM–IV Non Patient Version (SCID), the PTSD Symptom Scale-Self-Report (PSS-SR), the Impact of Event Scale-Revised (IES-R), the Beck Depression Inventory (BDI), the Dissociative Experiences Scale-II (DES-II), and the State-Trait Anxiety Inventory (STAI). Results indicate improvement in PTSD was significantly greater in both the PE and EMDR group than the WAIT group. Limitations include nonrandomization of subjects and sample size.

Length of postintervention follow-up: 6 months (PE and EMDR only).

Rothbaum, B. O., Cahill, S. P., Foa, E. B., Davidson, J. R., Compton, J., Connor, K. M., ... & Hahn, C. G. (2006). Augmentation of sertraline with prolonged exposure in the treatment of posttraumatic stress disorder. Journal of Traumatic Stress, 19(5), 625-638.

Type of Study: Randomized controlled trial
Number of Participants: 74

Population:

  • Age — Mean=39.3 years
  • Race/Ethnicity — 80% White, 18.5% African American, and 1.5% other
  • Gender — 65% Female
  • Status — Participants were outpatient men and women with chronic posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD).

Location/Institution: Emory University in Atlanta, Georgia; University of Pennsylvania in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania; and Duke University in Durham, North Carolina

Summary: (To include comparison groups, outcomes, measures, notable limitations)
This study was designed to determine whether augmenting sertraline with Prolonged Exposure (PE) [now called Prolonged Exposure Therapy for PTSD for Adults (PE)] would result in greater improvement than continuation with sertraline alone. Subjects who were already receiving sertraline were randomized to either continue sertraline on its own or to receive sertraline in combination with PE. Measures utilized include the Structured Clinical Interview for DSM–Patient Edition with Psychotic Screen (SCID), the Standardized Trauma Interview (STI), Structured Interview for PTSD (SIP), the Beck Depression Inventory (BDI), and the State-Trait Anxiety Inventory (STAI). Results indicated that continuing sertraline on its own led to no further reductions, while participants who received PE in addition to sertraline showed further reduction in PTSD severity. This effect was observed only for participants who showed a partial response to medication. Limitations include lack of a PE-only control group and that findings may not generalize to other medications.

Length of postintervention follow-up: None.

Schnurr, P. P., Friedman, M. J., Engel, C. C., Foa, E. B., Shea, M. T., Chow, B. K., ... & Bernardy, N. (2007). Cognitive behavioral therapy for posttraumatic stress disorder in women. Journal of the American Medical Association, 297(8), 820-830.

Type of Study: Randomized controlled trial
Number of Participants: 277

Population:

  • Age — Not specified
  • Race/Ethnicity — Not specified
  • Gender — 100% Women
  • Status — Participants were women who suffered from posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD).

Location/Institution: 9 VA medical centers

Summary: (To include comparison groups, outcomes, measures, notable limitations)
This study compared Prolonged Exposure (PE) [now called Prolonged Exposure Therapy for PTSD for Adults (PE)] with present-centered therapy for the treatment of PTSD. Measures utilized include the Clinician-Administered PTSD Scale (CAPS), the PTSD Checklist, and the Structured Clinical Interview for DSM–IV (SCID). Results indicated that women who received PE experienced greater reduction of PTSD symptoms relative to women who received present-centered therapy. The PE group was more likely than the present-centered therapy group to no longer meet PTSD diagnostic criteria and achieve total remission. Limitations include attrition bias and findings may not generalize other population.

Length of postintervention follow-up: 3 and 6 months.

Rauch, S. A., Grunfeld, T. E.,Yadin, E., Cahill, S .P., Hembree, E., & Foa, E. B. (2009). Changes in reported physical health symptoms and social function with prolonged exposure therapy for chronic posttraumatic stress disorder. Depression and Anxiety, 26, 732-738.

Type of Study: Randomized controlled trial (secondary data analysis)
Number of Participants: 107

Population:

  • Age — Mean=31 years
  • Race/Ethnicity — 88 Caucasian, 78 African American, and 13 Other
  • Gender — 100% Female
  • Status — Participants were female assault survivors with chronic posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD).

Location/Institution: Center for the Treatment and Study of Anxiety (CTSA), or through Women Organized Against Rape (WOAR)

Summary: (To include comparison groups, outcomes, measures, notable limitations)
This study utilizes a subset of the population from Foa et al. (2005) to examine whether negative health perceptions and general social functioning change with treatment of chronic PTSD among women from a randomized controlled study comparing Prolonged Exposure Therapy for PTSD for Adults (PE) (n=48) or PE combined with cognitive restructuring (PE/CR; n=40) to waitlist (n=19). Measures utilized include the Pennebaker Inventory of Limbic Languidness (PILL), the Social Adjustment Scale, theStructured Clinical Interview for DSM–IV Axis I Disorders With Psychotic Screen, the PTSD Symptom Scale—Interview (PSS), the Beck Depression Inventory (BDI), Social Adjustment Scale (SAS), and PTSD Symptom Scale—Self-Report (PSS–SR). Results indicate self-reported physical health difficulties were significantly reduced in the PE and PE/CR conditions compared to the waitlist condition. These reductions did not demonstrate significant change during the 12-month follow-up period. Self-reported discomfort associated with physical health difficulties did not demonstrate significant change over treatment. No difference was detected between the active treatment and waitlist conditions. Both the PE and PE/CR groups reported improved social functioning at posttreatment compared to the waitlist. Additional improvement in general social functioning was found between 3- and 12-month follow-up assessments. Changes in PTSD and depressive symptoms over treatment accounted for 29% of the variance in reduction of reported health problems and 30% of the variance in improvement of general social functioning. Importantly, only changes in PTSD symptoms significantly contribute to the model predicting change in physical health problems with depression associated only at a trend level. Limitations include small sample size, missing data, and reliance on self-reported measure.

Length of postintervention follow-up: 3 and 12 months.

*Nacasch, N., Foa, E. B., Huppert, J. D., Tzur, D., Fostick, L., Dinstein, Y., ... & Zohar, J. (2011). Prolonged Exposure Therapy for combat- and terror-related posttraumatic stress disorder: A randomized control comparison with treatment as usual. The Journal of Clinical Psychiatry, 72(9), 1174-1180.

Type of Study: Randomized controlled trial
Number of Participants: 30

Population:

  • Age — Not specified
  • Race/Ethnicity — Not specified
  • Gender — Not specified
  • Status — Participants were patients in a psychiatric trauma unit with posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) related to combat or terror.

Location/Institution: Chaim Sheba Medical Center in Israel

Summary: (To include comparison groups, outcomes, measures, notable limitations)
This study examined patients of a trauma unit within a psychiatric outpatient clinic that were assigned to either Prolonged Exposure (PE) [now called Prolonged Exposure Therapy for PTSD for Adults (PE)] or treatment as usual. Measures utilized include the Mini International Neuropsychiatric Interview, the PTSD Symptom Scale—Interview (PSS-I), the Beck Depression Inventory (BDI), Social Adjustment Scale (SAS), State-Trait Anxiety Inventory (STAI), and the Posttraumatic Cognitions Inventory (PTCI). Results indicate posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) was significantly lower in patients who received PE in comparison to patients who received treatment as usual. Limitations include sample size, sample composed of mostly males, and generalizability to other population groups.

Length of postintervention follow-up: 12 months.

*Resick, P. A., Williams, L. F., Suvak, M. K., Monson, C. M., Gradus, J. L. (2012). Long-term outcomes of cognitive–behavioral treatments for posttraumatic stress disorder among female rape survivors. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 80, 201-210.

Type of Study: Randomized controlled trial
Number of Participants: 144

Population:

  • Age — Mean=32 years
  • Race/Ethnicity — 71% White, 25% African American, and 4% other
  • Gender — 100% Female
  • Status — Participants were female rape victims.

Location/Institution: Not specified

Summary: (To include comparison groups, outcomes, measures, notable limitations)
This study uses the same sample as Resick et al. (2002). This study conducted a long-term follow-up assessment of participants from a randomized controlled trial which compared Cognitive Processing Therapy (CPT) with Prolonged Exposure for Posttraumatic Stress Disorder (PE). 144 of the 171 participants were assessed 5–10 years after participating in the original study. Measures utilized the Clinician-Administered PTSD Scale (CAPS), the Structured Interview for DSM–IV—Patient Version (SCID), Standardized trauma interview, the PTSD Symptom Scale, the Structured Clinical Interview for DSM–IV, the Beck Depression Inventory, the Trauma-Related Guilt Inventory (TRGI), and the Expectancy of Therapeutic Outcome Scale. Results indicated substantial decreases in symptoms due to treatment were maintained throughout the follow-up period, as evidenced by little change over time from posttreatment through follow-up. No significant differences emerged during the follow-up between the treatment conditions and maintenance of improvements could not be attributed to further therapy or medications. Limitations of the study include generalizability.

Length of postintervention follow-up: 5-10 years (mean=6 years).

References

Foa, E. B. (2011). Prolonged Exposure Therapy: Past, present, and future. Depression and Anxiety, 28, 1043-1047.

Foa, E. B., Hembree, E. A., & Rothbaum, B. O. (2007). Prolonged Exposure Therapy for PTSD: Emotional processing of traumatic experiences – Therapist guide. New York: Oxford University Press.

Rothbaum, B. O., Foa, E. B., & Hembree, E. A. (2007). Reclaiming your life from a traumatic experience: Workbook. New York: Oxford University Press.

Contact Information

Name: Sandy Capaldi, PsyD
Agency/Affiliation: Center for the Treatment and Study of Anxiety, University of Pennsylvania
Website: www.med.upenn.edu/ctsa/workshops_pet.html
Email:
Phone: (215) 746-5705
Fax: (215) 746-3311

Date Research Evidence Last Reviewed by CEBC: August 2016

Date Program Content Last Reviewed by Program Staff: August 2016

Date Program Originally Loaded onto CEBC: July 2013