Steps Toward Effective, Enjoyable Parenting (STEEP)

Scientific Rating:
NR
Not able to be Rated
See scale of 1-5
Child Welfare System Relevance Level:
Medium
See descriptions of 3 levels

About This Program

The information in this program outline is provided by the program representative and edited by the CEBC staff. Steps Toward Effective, Enjoyable Parenting (STEEP) has been reviewed by the CEBC in the area of: Prevention of Child Abuse and Neglect (Secondary) Programs, but lacks the necessary research evidence to be given a Scientific Rating.

Target Population: First-time low-income mothers of children 0-23 months old

For parents/caregivers of children ages: 0 – 1

Brief Description

STEEP works on the premise that a secure attachment between parent and infant establishes ongoing patterns of healthy interactions. Through home visits and group sessions, STEEP facilitators work alongside parents to help them understand their child's development. Parents learn to respond sensitively and predictably to their child's needs and to make decisions that ensure a safe and supportive environment for the whole family.

Specific topics and strategies included in training:

  • Making relationship-based practice real, from recruitment to termination
  • Using videotaping and guided viewing to promote understanding, sensitivity, and responsiveness
  • Planning and leading parent-infant groups
  • Challenging and supporting parents in examining how their own relationship history influences attitudes and parenting behavior
  • Using an ecological approach to help reduce risk and maximize parents' support for themselves and their children
  • Using reflective supervision or consultation to sustain service providers and ensure effective service

Program Goals:

The overall goals of Steps toward Effective, Enjoyable Parenting (STEEP) are:

  • Improve parental knowledge and understanding of child’s behavior and development
  • Improve parental sensitivity and responsiveness to infant cues
  • Improve parental coping skills and decision-making related to life-planning for themselves and their child
  • Strengthen the family’s support network, including both formal and informal resources
  • Improve parents’ reflective capacity as it relates to how their relationship history influences their responses to their child

Essential Components

The essential components of Steps toward Effective, Enjoyable Parenting (STEEP) include:

  • Bi-weekly home visiting beginning during the 2nd trimester of pregnancy and continuing through the duration of the program which is usually until the child turns 2 years old)
  • Bi-weekly mother-infant groups that include both mother-child interaction time and mom-talk time
  • Video-recording of ordinary parent-child interaction and guided viewing of the video with the parent to promote parental sensitivity and perspective-taking and to identify factors that support or hinder the parent from sustaining sensitive responsiveness (Seeing Is Believing™)
  • Occasional family nights that include fathers and other family members invited by the parents
  • Regularly scheduled reflective supervision for all staff, both individually and as a team during case consultation (that includes review of recent videos of the families being discussed)

Parent/Caregiver Services

Steps Toward Effective, Enjoyable Parenting (STEEP) directly provides services to parents/caregivers and addresses the following:

  • Lack of knowledge of child development, insensitive parenting, anger management, unhealthy life choices, isolation and/or connection with unhealthy peer groups that undermine parenting
Services Involve Family/Support Structures:

This program involves the family or other support systems in the individual's treatment: Home visits include father and other household members as possible, and family nights also include family members, as defined by the mother.

Delivery Settings

This program is typically conducted in a(n):

  • Birth Family Home
  • Community Agency

Homework

Steps Toward Effective, Enjoyable Parenting (STEEP) includes a homework component:

Because the program is individualized, parents and facilitators sometimes decide together on homework, such as tracking steps toward personal and parenting goals, monitoring changes in a child’s behavior, etc.

Languages

Steps Toward Effective, Enjoyable Parenting (STEEP) has materials available in a language other than English:

German

For information on which materials are available in this language, please check on the program's website or contact the program representative (contact information is listed at the bottom of this page).

Resources Needed to Run Program

The typical resources for implementing the program are:

Room with necessary equipment for running mother-infant groups, which usually include provision of a meal; a quiet, comfortable room for mom-talk time while babies remain in the interaction room; qualified personnel to conduct the home visiting and lead the groups; qualified assistants to care for babies during mom-talk time. Some programs also provide transportation if they are in a location where public transportation is unavailable or difficult for moms and infants.

Minimum Provider Qualifications

Minimum of a Bachelor’s degree in a related field (e.g., health, education, social work, psychology) plus preservice training specifically in the STEEP model and ongoing reflective supervision and continuing education tailored to staff needs.

Education and Training Resources

There is a manual that describes how to implement this program, and there is training available for this program.

Training Contacts:
Training is obtained:

Onsite and regionally

Number of days/hours:

A two-day introductory training is offered to teach STEEP strategies (including the Seeing Is Believing video review strategy) and the theory and research behind the program, But organizations wishing to implement the full STEEP program must work with the program representatives to tailor a training and ongoing consultation plan to the qualifications and experience level of the staff in their organization who will be implementing the program. Either Center for Early Education and Development (CEED) or the STEEP program developers can be the point of contact for interested organizations.

Additional Resources:

There currently are additional qualified resources for training:

There are several qualified trainers in the U.S. and CEED or the program developers can make those connections as appropriate. Leaders of the STEEP program and training in Germany also are an excellent resource, with Dr. Gerhard Suess as the point of contact (gerhard.suess@haw-hamburg.de)

Relevant Published, Peer-Reviewed Research

This program has been reviewed and it was determined that this program lacks the type of published, peer-reviewed research that meets the CEBC criteria for a scientific rating of 1 – 5. Therefore, the program has been given the classification of "NR - Not able to be Rated." It was reviewed because it was identified by the topic expert as a program being used in the field, or it is being marketed and/or used in California with children receiving services from child welfare or related systems and their parents/caregivers. Some programs that are not rated may have published, peer-reviewed research that does not meet the above stated criteria or may have eligible studies that have not yet been published in the peer-reviewed literature. For more information on the "NR - Not able to be Rated" classification, please see the Scientific Rating Scale.

Child Welfare Outcomes: Not Specified

Suess, G. J., Bohlen, U., Carlson, E. A., Spangler, G., & Frumentia Maier, M. (2016). Effectiveness of attachment based STEEP™ intervention in a German high-risk sample. Attachment & Human Development, 18(5), 443-460. doi:10.1080/14616734.2016.1165265

Type of Study: Pretest-posttest with control group
Number of Participants: 107 mother-infant dyads.

Population:

  • Age — Children: 12-24 months, Adults: Mean=18.08-19.34 years
  • Race/Ethnicity — Not specified
  • Gender — Children: Not specified, Adults: 100% Female
  • Status — Participants were mothers and their children involved in child welfare agencies.

Location/Institution: Germany (Hamburg, Frankfurt, Offenburg)

Summary: (To include comparison groups, outcomes, measures, notable limitations)
The current study aimed to examine the effectiveness of the Steps Toward Effective and Enjoyable Parenting (STEEP) intervention model. Mothers in the STEEP group were recruited during pregnancy or, in some cases, shortly after the birth of the baby. Control group families were recruited when the babies were 12 months of age. Both groups were followed until the babies were 24 months of age. Treatment group mothers were guided in the STEEP program at the three sites. Control group mothers received standard support as usual in the German Child Welfare System (GCWS). Measures utilized include the Attachment Q-Sort (AQS) scale, the Parental Stress Index short form (PSI-SF), the Adult/Adolescent Parenting Inventory (AAPI), and the Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale (EPDS). Results indicated that significantly more mother–infant pairs in the STEEP intervention group showed secure attachment patterns in Ainsworth´s Strange Situation when the infants were 12 months of age than mother-infant pairs in the GCWS group. At the end of the intervention (infant age = 24 month), attachment security scores derived from Waters’ Attachment Q-Sort were in the predicted direction and showed a medium effect size, but did not reach criteria of statistical significance. At both time points, the STEEP group showed significantly fewer signs of attachment disorganization than the comparison group. Limitations include lack of randomization of participants, small control group, and lack of follow-up.

Length of postintervention follow-up: None.

References

Egeland, B. & Erickson, M. F. (2004). Lessons from STEEP-super ™: Linking theory, research and practice for the well-being of infants and parents. In Treating parent-infant relationship problems: Strategies for intervention. Arnold Sameroff, Susan C. McDonough, & Katherine L. Rosenblum (Eds.). New York: Guilford Press.

Erickson, M. F., Egeland, B., Simon, J., & Rose, T. (2002). STEEP™ Facilitator’s Guide. Minneapolis, MN: Irving B. Harris Training Center, University of Minnesota. [To order, go to http://www.cehd.umn.edu/ceed/publications/manuals]

Erickson, M. F., Korfmacher, J., & Egeland, B. (1992). Attachments past and present: Implications for therapeutic intervention with mother-infant dyads. Annual Progress in Child Psychiatry and Child Development, 1993, 459-476.

Contact Information

Name: Martha Erickson, Ph.D. (retired)
Agency/Affiliation: University of Minnesota
Email:
Name: Byron Egeland, Ph.D. (retired)
Agency/Affiliation: University of Minnesota
Email:
Agency/Affiliation: University of Minnesota
Department: Center for Early Education and Development
Website: www.cehd.umn.edu/CEED
Phone: (612) 625-3058

Date Research Evidence Last Reviewed by CEBC: August 2016

Date Program Content Last Reviewed by Program Staff: April 2016

Date Program Originally Loaded onto CEBC: February 2008