Trauma-Grief Component Therapy for Adolescents (TGCT-A)

Scientific Rating:
3
Promising Research Evidence
See scale of 1-5
Child Welfare System Relevance Level:
Medium
See descriptions of 3 levels

About This Program

The information in this program outline is provided by the program representative and edited by the CEBC staff. Trauma-Grief Component Therapy for Adolescents (TGCT-A) has been rated by the CEBC in the area of: Trauma Treatment - Client-Level Interventions (Child & Adolescent).

Target Population: Adolescent males or females aged 12-20 from a broad spectrum of socioeconomic, religious, cultural and ethnic groups who have been exposed to trauma, loss, or a combination of the two

For children/adolescents ages: 12 – 20

Brief Description

TGCT-A is a manualized, assessment-driven group or individual treatment program for trauma-exposed or traumatically bereaved older children and adolescents. It is designed to address the complex needs of youth who must content with the interplay of trauma and grief. Its modular design, with workbook and detailed instructions, enables it to be customized for specific youth needs and varying lengths of treatment. It is organized into four modules that can be used in multiple configurations. Module I provides psychoeducation regarding traumatic stress and grief reactions, and training in core skills for emotion regulation, dealing with trauma and loss reminders, accessing social support, etc. Module II provides guidelines for facilitating narrative construction and sharing of trauma-/loss experiences. Module III provides a customized approach to grief based on the assessment of a youth's multidimensional grief profile. Specific skill training and therapeutic experiences are provided depending on the mix of separation distress, existential/identity distress, or circumstance-related distress (traumatic circumstances of death). Module IV promotes developmental progression, planning for upcoming stressors, and consolidates treatment gains.

Program Goals:

The goals of Trauma -Grief Component Therapy for Adolescents (TGCT-A) are:

  • Reduce PTSD
  • Reduce depression
  • Reduce maladaptive grief
  • Improve school behavior
  • Resume developmental progression

Essential Components

The essential components of Trauma-Grief Component Therapy for Adolescents (TGCT-A) include:

  • A session-by-session detailed guide to conduct individual and group versions of the program with an accompanying youth workbook
  • Pretreatment Clinical Assessment and Interview:
    • Guide to conduct an interview and interpret measures to determine fit of the program for the youth and to customize it for the youth's unique needs
    • Specialized assessments for trauma and grief that render a unique profile to select which portions of the program should be applied
  • Treatment Modalities:
    • Both individual and group treatment supported
    • Groups should be 5-9 individuals and may be designed to focus either on trauma, grief, or a combination of the two
    • Usually weekly meetings of 50-75 minutes
    • May be led by trained Masters-level and above mental health providers
  • Treatment Manual:
    • Organized into four modules
    • Depending on needs of participants and amount of time available, individual or group treatment may cover one to two modules or the entire four
  • Module I (Psychoeducation & Skills Training):
    • Learn to identify personal posttraumatic stress, grief and anxiety reactions and how these are evoked by their unique trauma and loss reminders
    • Develop a personalized set of coping strategies to anticipate and manage their reactivity to triggers/reminders
    • Train in emotion regulation and problem-solving around difficult situations and trauma-loss related adversities
    • Enhance youth's ability to recruit appropriate types and sources of social support
  • Module II (Trauma/Loss Narrative Processing):
    • Select a primary trauma or loss experience for therapeutic work
    • Construct a detailed and coherent trauma narrative of that experience that weaves together what was happening outside and inside of youth
    • Identify and process worst moments including clarifying their respective links to trauma and loss reminders
    • Identify and process intervention fantasies and accompanying intense negative emotions including extreme fear, guilt, shame, rage, and desires for revenge
    • Strengthen adolescent impulse control by increasing insight into how reactions to worst moments, often as evoked by trauma and loss reminders, can lead to risky and destructive behavior
  • Module III (Grief and Traumatic Bereavement Processing):
    • Identify personal loss reminders and understand their role in evoking grief and other reactions
    • Identify personal grief reactions and mourning rituals
    • Explain how grief is a beneficial process that facilitates adjustment to the loss, but under some conditions can go awry (lead to severe persisting distress, functional impairment, risky behavior, developmental disruption) in any of three primary domains:
      • Separation distress
      • Existential/identity distress
      • Distress over the circumstances of the death
    • Reduce maladaptive grief reactions using exercises that are specifically tailored for each of the three grief domains
    • Promote healthy grieving and mourning within each of the three primary grief domains
  • Module IV (Resuming Developmental Progression):
    • Briefly revisit traumatic expectations that undermine adolescents’ hopes and potential, and choose in their place more constructive basic beliefs and moral principles by which to guide their lives
    • Strengthen adolescents’ capacity to problem-solve and cope with current and anticipated future life adversities which includes developing plans to appropriately disclose their trauma- and loss- related experiences to important and trusted people in their lives
    • Form positive yet realistic life ambitions and professional aspirations, and problem-solve concrete strategies to achieve those ambitions in ways that will renew and promote developmental progression
    • Promote constructive engagement in prosocial activities and investment in the social contract through such activities as advocacy, community service, random acts of kindness, and acting on intervention thoughts in positive and proactive ways

Child/Adolescent Services

Trauma-Grief Component Therapy for Adolescents (TGCT-A) directly provides services to children/adolescents and addresses the following:

  • Posttraumatic stress, depression, anxiety, maladaptive grief, interruptions in developmental progression related to trauma or loss
Services Involve Family/Support Structures:

This program involves the family or other support systems in the individual's treatment: As possible, parents or caregivers are provided a few consultations to familiarize them with the program and prepare them to best support related efforts in their child. In some cases, however, such as in some juvenile justice programs, access to parents and caregivers can be very limited.

Delivery Settings

This program is typically conducted in a(n):

  • Community Agency
  • Hospital
  • Outpatient Clinic
  • Residential Care Facility
  • School

Homework

Trauma-Grief Component Therapy for Adolescents (TGCT-A) includes a homework component:

Each session has prescribed homework (that can be flexibly adjusted) with handouts and a youth workbook.

Languages

Trauma-Grief Component Therapy for Adolescents (TGCT-A) has materials available in a language other than English:

Bosnian

For information on which materials are available in this language, please check on the program's website or contact the program representative (contact information is listed at the bottom of this page).

Resources Needed to Run Program

The typical resources for implementing the program are:

For individual implementation, a single Master’s or Doctoral-level clinician plus a private room; for group implementation, an appropriate sized room and 1-2 clinicians

Minimum Provider Qualifications

Masters-level training in a mental health-related field

Education and Training Resources

There is a manual that describes how to implement this program, and there is training available for this program.

Training Contact:
Training is obtained:

It is offered regionally through the National Child Traumatic Stress Network and can be offered at sites wishing to host their own training.

Number of days/hours:

3-day training followed by ongoing phone supervision

Implementation Information

Since Trauma-Grief Component Therapy for Adolescents (TGCT-A) is rated on the Scientific Rating Scale, information was requested from the program representative on available pre-implementation assessments, implementation tools, and/or fidelity measures.

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Pre-Implementation Materials

There are no pre-implementation materials to measure organizational or provider readiness for Trauma-Grief Component Therapy for Adolescents (TGCT-A).

Formal Support for Implementation

There is formal support available for implementation of Trauma-Grief Component Therapy for Adolescents (TGCT-A) as listed below:

There is phone supervision required as part of the training.

Fidelity Measures

There are fidelity measures for Trauma-Grief Component Therapy for Adolescents (TGCT-A) as listed below:

There are fidelity checklists for each module. Validated measures were developed to customize implementation and evaluate outcome and program effectiveness.

Please contact William Saltzman at wsaltzman@sbcglobal.net

Implementation Guides or Manuals

There are no implementation guides or manuals for Trauma-Grief Component Therapy for Adolescents (TGCT-A).

Research on How to Implement the Program

Research has been conducted on how to implement Trauma-Grief Component Therapy for Adolescents (TGCT-A) as listed below:

Saltzman, W. R., Layne, C. M., Steinberg, A. M., Arslanagic, B., Pynoos, R. S. (2003). Developing a culturally-ecologically sound intervention program for youth exposed to war and terrorism. Child and Adolescent Psychiatric Clinics of North America, 12, 319-342.

Olafson, E., Boat, B. W., Putnam, K. T., Thieken, L., Marrow, M. T., & Putnam, F. W. (2016). Implementing Trauma and Grief Component Therapy for Adolescents and Think Trauma for traumatized youth in secure juvenile justice settings. Journal of Interpersonal Violence. Advance online publication. doi:10.1177/0886260516628287

Relevant Published, Peer-Reviewed Research

This program is rated a "3 - Promising Research Evidence" on the Scientific Rating Scale based on the published, peer-reviewed research available. The practice must have at least one study utilizing some form of control (e.g., untreated group, placebo group, matched wait list study) establishing the practice's benefit over the placebo, or found it to be comparable to or better than an appropriate comparison practice. Please see the Scientific Rating Scale for more information.

Child Welfare Outcome: Child/Family Well-Being

Show relevant research...

Goenjian, A. K., Karayan, I., Pynoos, R. S., Minassian, D., Najarian, L. M., Steinberg, A. M., & Fairbanks, L. A. (1997). Outcome of psychotherapy among early adolescents after trauma. American Journal of Psychiatry, 154(4), 536-542. doi:10.1176/ajp.154.4.536

Type of Study: Pretest-posttest with control group
Number of Participants: 64

Population:

  • Age — Mean=13.2 years
  • Race/Ethnicity — Not specified
  • Gender — 42 Females and 22 Males
  • Status — Participants were adolescents exposed to the 1988 earthquake in Armenia.

Location/Institution: Gumri, Armenia

Summary: (To include comparison groups, outcomes, measures, notable limitations)
The current study evaluated the effectiveness of the Trauma/Grief-Focused Group Treatment program [now called Trauma-Grief Component Therapy for Adolescents (TGCT-A)] on adolescents exposed to the 1988 earthquake in Armenia. Students in two of the schools received trauma/grief-focused brief psychotherapy (N=35), while students at the other two schools were not treated with psychotherapy (N=29). Measures utilized include the Child Posttraumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD) Reaction Index and Depression Self-Rating Scale (DSRS). Results indicate participants receiving Trauma/Grief-Focused Group Treatment alleviated posttraumatic stress symptoms and prevented the worsening of depressive symptoms. In contrast, those who were not treated with Trauma/Grief-Focused Group Treatment had a worsening course of both posttraumatic stress and depressive symptoms. Of special note, students who received treatment had been experiencing chronic posttraumatic stress symptoms before initiation of therapy. Further, the benefits of treatment did not appear to be transient and were still in evidence 18 months after intervention ended. Limitations include lack of randomization, small sample size, and reliance on self-reported measures.

Length of postintervention follow-up: 18 months.

Layne, C. M., Pynoos, R. S., Saltzman, W. R., Arslanagic, B., Black, M., Savjak, N., … Houston, R. (2001). Trauma/Grief-Focused Group Psychotherapy: School-based post-war Intervention with traumatized Bosnian adolescents. Group Dynamics: Theory, Research, and Practice, 5, 277-290. doi:10.1037/1089-2699.5.4.277

Type of Study: One-group pretest-posttest study
Number of Participants: 55

Population:

  • Age — 15-19 years
  • Race/Ethnicity — Not specified
  • Gender — 81% Female and 19% Male
  • Status — Participants were adolescents exposed to trauma.

Location/Institution: 10 secondary schools – Bosnia and Hercegovina

Summary: (To include comparison groups, outcomes, measures, notable limitations)
The current study evaluated the effectiveness of the Trauma/Grief-Focused Group Treatment program [now called Trauma-Grief Component Therapy for Adolescents (TGCT-A)] on war-traumatized adolescents. Measures utilized include the Reaction Index-Revised (RI-R), Child Self-Rating Scale (CSRS), Self-Satisfaction Scale (SSS), Grief Screening Scale (GSS) and Depression Self-Rating Scale (DSRS). Results indicate participation in the Trauma/Grief-Focused Group Treatment program was associated with significant reduction in posttraumatic stress, depression, and grief symptoms between pretreatment and posttreatment. Limitations include lack of randomization, lack of control group, small sample size, and lack of follow-up.

Length of postintervention follow-up: None.

Saltzman, W. R., Pynoos, R. S., Layne, C. M., Steinberg, A. M., & Aisenberg, E. (2001). Trauma- and grief-focused intervention for adolescents exposed to community violence: Results of a school-based screening and group treatment protocol. Group Dynamics: Theory, Research, and Practice, 5(4), 291-303. doi:10.1037/1089-2699.5.4.291

Type of Study: One-group pretest-posttest study
Number of Participants: 26

Population:

  • Age — 11-14 years
  • Race/Ethnicity — 68% Hispanic, 28% African American, and 4% Caucasian
  • Gender — 61% Male and 29% Female
  • Status — Participants were middle school students that were surveyed for exposure to trauma and distress and participated in the trauma and grief-focused group psychotherapy program.

Location/Institution: Pasadena, California

Summary: (To include comparison groups, outcomes, measures, notable limitations)
The current study evaluated the effectiveness of the Trauma/Grief-Focused Group Treatment program [now called Trauma-Grief Component Therapy for Adolescents (TGCT-A)] on middle school students with severe exposure, posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD0 and functional impairment war-traumatized adolescents. Measures utilized include the Community Violence Exposure Survey (CVES), UCLA PTSD Reaction Index—Adolescent Version (RI-R), Reynolds Adolescent Depression Scale (RADS), Grief Screening Scale (GSS), and The UCLA Trauma-Grief Screening Interview. Results indicate participation in Trauma/Grief Focused Group Treatment program was associated with significant improvements in posttraumatic stress symptoms, complicated grief symptoms, and grade point average (GPA). Limitations include lack of randomization, lack of control group, small sample size, and lack of follow-up.

Length of postintervention follow-up: None.

Cox , J., Davies, D. R., Burlingame, G. M., Campbell, J. E., & Layne, C. M., & Katzenbach, R. J. (2007). Effectiveness of a trauma/grief-focused group intervention: A qualitative study with war-exposed Bosnian adolescents. International Journal of Group Psychotherapy, 57, 319-345. doi:10.1521/ijgp.2007.57.3.319

Type of Study: Focus groups
Number of Participants: 34

Population:

  • Age — Not specified
  • Race/Ethnicity — Not specified
  • Gender — Not specified
  • Status — Participants were youth who experienced trauma from exposure to wars.

Location/Institution: Bosnia and Herzegovina

Summary: (To include comparison groups, outcomes, measures, notable limitations)
The effectiveness and impacts Trauma-Grief Component Therapy for Adolescents (TGCT-A) for war-exposed youth were investigated using semistructured focus groups, conducted separately for students and their school counselor group leaders. Results indicate students’ and leaders’ evaluations of the groups were generally positive. General themes of outcomes and impacts perceived by students and group leaders include acquisition of coping skills and attitudes; willingness to advocate for peers; improved interpersonal relationships; negative impacts; general positive impacts; impacts in the schools; impacts on the group and logistics of the program; and broader impacts on the perception of mental health in the community.

Length of postintervention follow-up: None.

Layne, C. M., Saltzman, W. R., Poppleton, L., Burlingame, G. M., Pašalić, A., Duraković-Belko, E., … Pynoos, R. S. (2008). Effectiveness of a school-based group psychotherapy program for war-exposed adolescents: A randomized controlled trial. Journal of the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, 47, 1048-1062. doi:10.1097/CHI.0b013e31817eecae

Type of Study: Randomized controlled trial
Number of Participants: 127

Population:

  • Age — 13-19 years
  • Race/Ethnicity — Not specified
  • Gender — 65% Female and 35% Male
  • Status — Participants were adolescents exposed to trauma.

Location/Institution: 10 secondary schools - Central Bosnia

Summary: (To include comparison groups, outcomes, measures, notable limitations)
The current study evaluated the comparative effectiveness of a classroom-based psychoeducation and skills intervention and a school-based Trauma- and Grief-Focused Group Treatment [now called Trauma-Grief Component Therapy for Adolescents (TGCT-A)] for adolescents exposed to severe war-related trauma, traumatic bereavement, and postwar adversity. Subjects were randomized to receive to the classroom-based psychoeducation and skills intervention alone, or the classroom-based psychoeducation and skills intervention combined with TGCT-A. Measures utilized include the Posttraumatic Stress Disorder Reaction Index (RI), Depression Self-Rating Scale (DSRS), and UCLA Grief Inventory. Results indicate effectiveness of both tiers of intervention produced generally favorable results, with significant pretreatment to posttreatment reductions in posttraumatic stress disorder ( PTSD) and depression symptoms in both the treatment and comparison conditions and significant reductions in maladaptive grief reactions in the TGCT-A group. Moreover, significant symptom improvement between posttreatment and 4-month follow-up was observed in both treatment and comparison conditions on measures of PTSD and depression symptoms. Limitations included the TGCT-A group being exposed to the classroom-based arm of the intervention which makes it challenging to contrast the two active treatment conditions and their respective effects, small sample size, and length of follow-up.

Length of postintervention follow-up: 4 months.

CATS Consortium. (2010). Implementation of CBT for youth affected by the World Trade Center disaster: Matching need to treatment intensity and reducing trauma symptoms. (2010). Journal of Traumatic Stress, 23(6), 699-707. doi:10.1002/jts.20594.

Type of Study: Regression discontinuity (or need-based assignment) quasi-experimental design
Number of Participants: 306

Population:

  • Age — 5-21 years (Mean=11.6 years)
  • Race/Ethnicity — 63% Latino, 13% African American, 11% White, and 7% Other
  • Gender — Not specified
  • Status — Participants were children and youth affected by the September 11th disaster and other traumatic events.

Location/Institution: New York State Office of Mental Health

Summary: (To include comparison groups, outcomes, measures, notable limitations)
This study evaluated Trauma and Grief Component Therapy for Adolescents (TGCT-A) [now called Trauma-Grief Component Therapy for Adolescents (TGCT-A)] and Child and Parent Trauma-Focused Cognitive-Behavioral Therapy Treatment Manual (TF-CBT), both collectively referred to hereafter as trauma-specific CBT, versus a brief CBT skills intervention with traumatized youth in a post-disaster context. Youth were assigned to either trauma-specific CBT or brief CBT skills depending upon the severity of trauma symptoms. Children aged 5-12 with moderate to severe trauma symptoms were assigned to the Child and Parent TF-CBT, while adolescents (ages 13–21) moderate to severe trauma symptoms were assigned to TGCT-A. Measures utilized include the Posttraumatic Stress Disorder Reaction Index, the Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire and the Behavioral and Emotional Rating Scale. Results indicate that the rate of change over time was not significantly different for the trauma-specific CBT group versus the brief CBT skills comparison group. Both groups improved over time and their trauma symptoms decreased. Limitations include lack of randomization and inability to assess treatment fidelity to either of the treatment models.

Length of postintervention follow-up: 3, 6, and 12 months.

Grassetti, S. N., Herres, J., Williamson, A., Yarger, H. A., Layne, C. M., & Kobak, R. (2015). Narrative focus moderates symptom change trajectories in group treatment for traumatized and bereaved adolescents. Journal of Clinical Child and Adolescent Psychology, 44(6), 933-941. doi:10.1080/15374416.2014.913249

Type of Study: One-group pretest-posttest study
Number of Participants: 33

Population:

  • Age — 11-14 years
  • Race/Ethnicity — 61% Non-Latino White, 27% African American, and 12% Latino White
  • Gender — 73% Female
  • Status — Participants were middle school students that participated in the trauma and grief-focused group psychotherapy program

Location/Institution: Pasadena, California

Summary: (To include comparison groups, outcomes, measures, notable limitations)
The current study evaluated the effectiveness of Trauma-Grief Component Therapy for Adolescents (TGCT-A) in regards to whether the specific focus of students’ narratives (i.e., focus on trauma vs. focus on loss) as shared by TGCT-A group members would predict initial pretreatment levels, as well as pretreatment to posttreatment change trajectories of reducing posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) symptoms and maladaptive grief (MG) reactions. Measures utilized include the UCLA PTSD Reaction Index—Adolescent Version (RI-R), Persistent Complex Bereavement Disorder Checklist, and The Short Mood and Feelings Questionnaire. Results indicate students who constructed trauma-focused narratives reported higher pretreatment levels of PTSD symptoms, whereas students who constructed loss-focused narratives reported higher pretreatment levels of MG reactions. Further, students’ narrative focus predicted the rate of pretreatment–posttreatment decline in MG reactions but not PTSD symptoms; students who constructed loss-focused narratives reported higher rates of decline in MG reactions. Limitations include lack of randomization, lack of control group, small sample size, and lack of follow-up.

Length of postintervention follow-up: None.

Herres , J., Williamson, A. A., Kobak, R., Layne, C. M., Kaplow, J. B., Saltzman, W. R., & Pynoos, R. S. (2016). Internalizing and externalizing symptoms moderate treatment response to school‐based Trauma and Grief Component Therapy for Adolescents. School Mental Health. Advance online publication. doi:10.1007/s12310-016-9204-1

Type of Study: One-group pretest-posttest study
Number of Participants: 44

Population:

  • Age — Mean=13.43 years
  • Race/Ethnicity — 56% Non-Latino White, 29% African Americans, and 15% Hispanic/Latino
  • Gender — Not specified
  • Status — Participants were 7th and 8th grade middle school students in a socioeconomically disadvantaged school district who had experienced trauma.

Location/Institution: Not stated

Summary: (To include comparison groups, outcomes, measures, notable limitations)
The aims of this study were to evaluate whether (a) Trauma and Grief Component Therapy for Adolescents (TGCTA) [now called Trauma-Grief Component Therapy for Adolescents (TGCT-A)] could be implemented in complex juvenile justice systems, (b) would be associated with a decrease in posttraumatic symptoms and reactions in youth, and (c) might contribute to reduce Incident Reports in facilities. Measures utilized include the Brief Problem Checklist (BPC), the Short Mood and Feelings Questionnaire (SMFQ), the Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire (SDQ), the UCLA PTSD Reaction Index (UCLA-RI), and maladaptive grief measures. Results indicate students’ distress ratings of their self-identified Top Problem decreased significantly across all three phases of TGCTA. Students with higher baseline internalizing symptoms benefited significantly less from TGCTA during the first phase (focusing on psychoeducation and skills-building) compared to students with lower internalizing symptoms, and benefitted significantly more during the second phase (focusing on trauma or loss-focused narrative construction). In contrast, youth with more baseline externalizing scores showed a trend towards greater reductions in Top Problem ratings during Piece I—the initial skills-building phase of treatment and showed no significant decline in their Top Problem ratings during the narrative-sharing phase (Piece II). Students with more internalizing symptoms showed the most benefit from treatment components in which they shared their trauma narratives or loss narratives. Limitations include lack of randomization of students, lack of control group, and lack of follow-up.

Length of postintervention follow-up: None.

The following studies were not included in rating TGCT-A on the Scientific Rating Scale...

Olafson , E., Boat, B. W., Putnam, K. T., Thieken, L., Marrow, M. T., & Putnam, F. W. (2016). Implementing Trauma and Grief Component Therapy for Adolescents and Think Trauma for traumatized youth in secure juvenile justice settings. Journal of Interpersonal Violence. Advance online publication. doi:10.1177/0886260516628287

Note: This study was not used for rating Trauma-Grief Component Therapy for Adolescents (TGCT-A) since TGCT-A was used in combination with another intervention. The aims of this study were to determine whether trauma-focused interventions (a) could be implemented in complex juvenile justice systems, (b) would be associated with a decrease in posttraumatic symptoms and reactions in youth, and (c) might contribute to reduce Incident Reports in facilities. Trauma and Grief Component Therapy for Adolescents (TGCT-A) [now called Trauma-Grief Component Therapy for Adolescents (TGCT-A)], coupled with Think Trauma, were implemented in six residential juvenile justice facilities. Measures utilized include the Trauma Symptom Checklist for Children (TSCC), the UCLA Posttraumatic Stress Disorder Reaction Index (UCLA PTSD RI), the Adolescent Dissociative Experiences Scale (ADES), the Childhood Trust Events Survey Adolescent Version (CTES-A), the Trauma Experiences Screening Instrument (TESI) and the Adverse Childhood Experiences (ACEs). Results indicate pregroup and postgroup assessments indicated significant reductions in symptoms of posttraumatic stress, depression, and anger, but not in anxiety or sexual concerns. There were significantly greater reductions in posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) among incarcerated youth who completed all modules of the group treatment intervention relative to incarcerated youth who received an abbreviated version. Two of the facilities tracked their Incident Reports and reported reductions. No Incident Reports or therapist feedback documented that the trauma/grief processing components of the intervention were destabilizing to the youth. Limitations include lack of randomization, lack of control group, inability to assess fidelity of each treatment separately, lack of follow-up, and generalizability concerns due to gender and population composition of youth.

References

Layne, C. M., Pynoos, R. S., & Cardenas, J. (2001). Wounded adolescence: School-based group psychotherapy for adolescents who have sustained or witnessed violent interpersonal injury. In M. Shafii & S. Shafii (Eds.), School violence: Contributing factors, management, and prevention (pp. 163-186). Washington, DC: American Psychiatric Press.

Saltzman, W. R., Steinberg, A., Layne, C. M., Aisenberg, E., & Pynoos, R.S. (2001). A developmental approach to school-based treatment of adolescents exposed to trauma and traumatic loss. Journal of Child and Adolescent Group Therapy, 11(2), 43-56. doi:10.1023/A:1014789630162

Saltzman, W. R., Layne, C. M., Steinberg, A. M., & Pynoos, R.S. (2006). Trauma/Grief-focused group psychotherapy with adolescents. In L. Schein, H. Spitz, G. Burlingame, & P. Muskin, (Eds.), Psychological effects of catastrophic disasters: Group approaches to treatment (pp. 669-730). New York: The Haworth Press.

Contact Information

Name: William R. Saltzman, PhD
Agency/Affiliation: California State University, Long Beach
Email:
Phone: (626) 840-2900
Fax: (626) 798-4312

Date Research Evidence Last Reviewed by CEBC: May 2016

Date Program Content Last Reviewed by Program Staff: April 2017

Date Program Originally Loaded onto CEBC: August 2016