Treatment Foster Care Oregon for Preschoolers (TFCO-P)

Scientific Rating:
2
Supported by Research Evidence
See scale of 1-5
Child Welfare System Relevance Level:
High
See descriptions of 3 levels

About This Program

The information in this program outline is provided by the program representative and edited by the CEBC staff. Treatment Foster Care Oregon for Preschoolers (TFCO-P) has been rated by the CEBC in the areas of: Disruptive Behavior Treatment (Child & Adolescent), Higher Levels of Placement and Placement Stabilization Programs.

Target Population: Preschool foster children aged 3-6 years old who exhibit a high level of disruptive and anti-social behavior which cannot be maintained in regular foster care or who may be considered for residential treatment

For children/adolescents ages: 3 – 6

For parents/caregivers of children ages: 3 – 6

Brief Description

TFCO-P (previously referred to as Multidimensional Treatment Foster Care for Preschoolers) is a foster care treatment model specifically tailored to the needs of 3 to 6-year-old foster children. TFCO-P is effective at promoting secure attachments in foster care and facilitating successful permanent placements.TFCO-P is delivered through a treatment team approach in which foster parents receive training and ongoing consultation and support. Children receive individual skills training and participate in a therapeutic playgroup, and birth parents (or other permanent placement caregivers) receive family therapy. TFCO-P emphasizes the use of concrete encouragement for pro-social behavior; consistent, non-abusive limit-setting to address disruptive behavior; and close supervision of the child. In addition, the TFCO-P intervention employs a developmental framework in which the challenges of foster preschoolers are viewed from the perspective of delayed maturation.

Program Goals:

The goals of Treatment Foster Care Oregon for Preschoolers (TFCO-P) are:

  • Eliminate or reduce child problem behaviors
  • Increase developmentally appropriate normative and prosocial behavior in children
  • Transition children to a birth family, adoptive family, or lower level aftercare resource
  • Improve children's peer associations
  • Improve parent-child interaction and communication
  • Improve children's coping and social skills

Essential Components

The essential components of Treatment Foster Care Oregon for Preschoolers (TFCO-P) include:

  • Three Key Mechanisms:
    • A proactive approach to reducing problem behavior
    • The creation and maintenance of a consistent and reinforcing environment for participating children
    • The separation and stratification of program staff roles; using a team approach, specific staff are assigned to supporting foster parents, working with children, facilitating the transition to long-term placement resources and interagency consultation
  • Other Components:
    • Foster parents are trained in TFCO-P prior to placement of a child.
    • Program Supervisor has authority regarding the team & program.
    • One child allowed per home; may place sibling groups together depending on symptoms.
    • Foster parents are members of the team.
    • The foster home is viewed as primary clinical environment.
    • Children's symptoms are treated as skill deficits.
    • A high level of encouragement is balanced with fair & consistent limits.
    • Children are closely supervised.
    • Adults are taught to be responsive to child cues.
    • The Parent Daily Report is administered Monday-Friday in a 10-minute daily phone call with foster parents to collect behavioral data and program contact.
    • Foster parents have access to FP (Foster Parent) Consultant and Program Supervisor 24 hours a day/7 days a week.

Child/Adolescent Services

Treatment Foster Care Oregon for Preschoolers (TFCO-P) directly provides services to children/adolescents and addresses the following:

  • Disruptive, maladaptive behaviors such as aggression, anxiety, depression, hyperactivity, autism spectrum, attachment, enuresis, encopresis, defiance, tantrums and general anti-social behavior including a wide range of diagnoses and also include developmental delays
Services Involve Family/Support Structures:

This program involves the family or other support systems in the individual's treatment: The TFCO-P model highly involves the parents or long-term care resource in learning new parenting skills throughout treatment.

Parent/Caregiver Services

Treatment Foster Care Oregon for Preschoolers (TFCO-P) directly provides services to parents/caregivers and addresses the following:

  • Lack of parenting skills, conflict issues with children

Delivery Settings

This program is typically conducted in a(n):

  • Birth Family Home
  • Community Agency
  • Foster/Kinship Care
  • School

Homework

This program does not include a homework component.

Languages

Treatment Foster Care Oregon for Preschoolers (TFCO-P) has materials available in a language other than English:

Dutch

For information on which materials are available in this language, please check on the program's website or contact the program representative (contact information is listed at the bottom of this page).

Resources Needed to Run Program

The typical resources for implementing the program are:

  • Office space for a team of approximately 6-8 people:
    • Program Supervisor
    • Recruiter/Trainer/Parent Daily Report Checklist Caller
    • Family Therapist
    • 2-3 Skills Trainers/Playgroup Assistants/Playgroup Leader
    • FP (Foster Parent) Consultant
  • 1-2 treatment rooms with video recording
  • Conference room with video recording
  • Internet access for Program Supervisor

Minimum Provider Qualifications

Program supervisor – In addition to a Master's level education in a clinical field and considerable relevant experience in behavior management approaches, this person should possess supervisory skills, considerable organizational abilities, and a thorough understanding of and enthusiastic attitude toward the treatment model. The program supervisor must be available to the foster parents and treatment team members 24 hours a day, 7 days a week.

Foster parent consultant/recruiter/trainer – While a formal post-secondary education is not necessary for this position, this person must have knowledge of foster parents and a clear understanding of the model. Prior experience as a foster parent or as an adoptive parent of older children is strongly desirable.

Family therapist – Master's level education in a clinical field. Knowledge of Parent Management Training or related behaviorally based parenting techniques is highly desirable.

Playgroup leader – Bachelor's level education in a relevant field. The playgroup leader is responsible for organizing, preparing, and executing the playgroup curriculum. This person is also responsible for leading the assistants for playgroup. The playgroup leader is also an individual skills trainer for children in the program.

Skills trainer – Bachelor's level education in a relevant field. Since skills training activities take place outside of the office, mileage reimbursements and reimbursements for modest entertainment, food, and beverage expenses are typically associated with these activities. Two skills trainers will also hold the position of playgroup assistants.

PDR-caller – This important position should be filled by someone with a thorough understanding of the treatment model and experience in foster parent activities. The specific education level for this position is less important. It may be filled by an experienced (ex-) foster parent.

Foster family – No formal education is required for foster parents. However, foster parents trained in the program should have a basic understanding of child development with reasonable expectations for this population of foster children. It is especially helpful when foster parents have a good sense of humor and do not take behaviors personally.

Consulting psychiatrist – Adequately serve children in the program who need medication prescribed and managed.

Education and Training Resources

There is a manual that describes how to implement this program, and there is training available for this program.

Training Contact:
Training is obtained:

Conducted in Eugene, Oregon

Number of days/hours:

5 days for a total of 40 hours

Implementation Information

Since Treatment Foster Care Oregon for Preschoolers (TFCO-P) is rated on the Scientific Rating Scale, information was requested from the program representative on available pre-implementation assessments, implementation tools, and/or fidelity measures.

Show implementation information...

Pre-Implementation Materials

There are pre-implementation materials to measure organizational or provider readiness for Treatment Foster Care Oregon for Preschoolers (TFCO-P) as listed below:

Prospective programs are given the TFCO-P Feasibility Information & Review and the TFCO-P Site Readiness Questionnaire which are completed within the program development phase.

Formal Support for Implementation

There is formal support available for implementation of Treatment Foster Care Oregon for Preschoolers (TFCO-P) as listed below:

Teams are provided direct program development support, assigned a TFCO-P clinical consultant for direct & individualized coaching (beginning on a weekly basis), weekly viewing of clinical and foster parent meetings by the consultant with feedback, onsite coaching by the consultant, and formal written feedback.

Fidelity Measures

There are fidelity measures for Treatment Foster Care Oregon for Preschoolers (TFCO-P) as listed below:

  • TFCO-P has a certification designation which provides the fidelity measures and can be found at http://www.tfcoregon.com/developing-a-program/tfco-program-certification/. Initial certification is good for two years and subsequent certification is given for a period of three years.
  • The certification applications are evaluated by the Center for Research to Practice which provides implementation programs with an impartial fidelity review separate from TFC Consultants, which provides the consultation services and training.
  • In addition, TFC Consultants conducts periodic reviews to TFCO-P programs based on the certification fidelity measures.

Implementation Guides or Manuals

There are implementation guides or manuals for Treatment Foster Care Oregon for Preschoolers (TFCO-P) as listed below:

The TFCO-P program provides manuals to agencies under contract with us for training and consultation services.

Research on How to Implement the Program

Research has not been conducted on how to implement Treatment Foster Care Oregon for Preschoolers (TFCO-P).

Relevant Published, Peer-Reviewed Research

This program is rated a "2 - Supported by Research Evidence" on the Scientific Rating Scale based on the published, peer-reviewed research available. The program must have at least one rigorous randomized controlled trial with a sustained effect of at least 6 months. The article(s) below that reports outcomes from an RCT showing a sustained effect of at least 6 months has an asterisk (*) at the beginning of its entry. Please see the Scientific Rating Scale for more information.

Child Welfare Outcomes: Permanency and Child/Family Well-Being

Show relevant research...

Fisher, P. A., Gunnar, M. R., Chamberlain, P., & Reid, J. B. (2000). Preventive intervention for maltreated preschoolers: Impact on child’s behavior, neuroendocrine activity, and foster parent functioning. Journal of the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, 39, 1356-1364.

Type of Study: Nonrandomized comparison groups
Number of Participants: 30

Population:

  • Age — EIFC: Mean=5.35 years; RFC: Mean=4.40 years, and Community Sample: Mean=4.48 years
  • Race/Ethnicity — EIFC: 80% Caucasian, RFC: 100% Caucasian, and Community Sample: 70% Caucasian
  • Gender — Not specified
  • Status — Participants were youth referred for special placement due to placement disruptions, youth to be placed in regular foster care, and nonmaltreated youth living with their biological families.

Location/Institution: Oregon

Summary: (To include comparison groups, outcomes, measures, notable limitations)
This study compares a group of children receiving The Early Intervention Foster Care (EIFC) program [now called Treatment Foster Care Oregon for Preschoolers (TFCO-P)] treatment to those receiving regular foster care services (RFC) and to a community sample of children living with their biological families. The authors note that due to lack of random assignment, the EIFC group generally had more severe maltreatment histories than did the RFC group. Outcome measures included the Child Caregiver Interviewer Impressions Form, which examines parenting strategies, the Parent Daily Report, to measure parenting stress, and the Early Childhood Inventory to measure child behavioral adjustment. Child stress response was also measured by sampling salivary cortisol levels. Baseline levels showed the foster children were developmentally delayed relative to the community sample. At follow-up the EIFC group did not differ from the community sample in parenting strategies, while the RFC group was significantly lower. The EIFC group also showed improvement in behavioral adjustment and salivary cortisol levels more similar to normal. Limitations include small group sizes and lack or random assignment to groups.

Length of postintervention follow-up: 12 weeks.

*Fisher, P. A., Burraston, B., & Pears, K. (2005). The Early Intervention Foster Care program: Permanent placement from a randomized trial. Child Maltreatment, 10(1), 61-71.

Type of Study: Randomized controlled trial
Number of Participants: 90

Population:

  • Age — 3-6 years
  • Race/Ethnicity — EIFC: 79% White, 18% Hispanic/Latino, and 3% Native American; RFC: 92% White, 4% Hispanic/Latino, and 4% Native American
  • Gender — EIFC: 66% Male, RFC: 60% Male
  • Status — Participants were foster children needing a new placement.

Location/Institution: Oregon

Summary: (To include comparison groups, outcomes, measures, notable limitations)
Children were randomly assigned to be placed in The Early Intervention Foster Care (EIFC) program [now called Treatment Foster Care Oregon for Preschoolers (TFCO-P)] or in regular foster care (RFC). Those in EIFC received parent training, supervision, and support, and children received behavioral therapy as needed. Outcome measures included type and number of placements, time in foster care before permanent placement, and failure of a permanent placement. Children in EIFC had significantly fewer failed permanent placements than children in regular foster care. The number of prior placements was positively associated with the risk of failed permanent placements for children in the comparison condition but not in the EIFC condition. The authors note that the small sample size did not allow for more detailed analysis of placement type and factors affecting placements. Limitations include small sample size and maltreatment information involved only basic data on the reason for the most recent foster placement.

Length of postintervention follow-up: Approximately 15 months.

Fisher, P., Gunnar, M., Dozier, M., Bruce, J., & Pears, K. (2006). Effects of therapeutic interventions for foster children on behavioral problems, caregiver attachment, and stress regulatory neural systems. Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences,1094, 215-225.

Type of Study: Randomized controlled trial
Number of Participants: 177

Population:

  • Age — 3-5 years
  • Race/Ethnicity — Not specified
  • Gender — Not specified
  • Status — Participants were foster children entering a new placement.

Location/Institution: Oregon

Summary: (To include comparison groups, outcomes, measures, notable limitations)
Note: This study uses the same sample as Fisher, Burraston, & Pears (2005). In the Fisher et al. sample, foster children were randomly assigned to receive Multidimensional Treatment Foster Care for Preschoolers (MTFC-P) [now called Treatment Foster Care Oregon for Preschoolers (TFCO-P)] or to a regular foster care condition. The present analysis shows that children in the MTFC-P group showed significantly better morning cortisol levels (associated with stress adaptation) than did those in regular foster care at a measurement period of 8-9 months after entering care. Limitations include small sample size and lack of follow-up.

Length of postintervention follow-up: Not specified.

Fisher, P. A., & Kim, H. K. (2007). Intervention effects on foster preschoolers’ attachment-related behaviors from a randomized trial. Prevention Science, 8, 161-170.

Type of Study: Randomized controlled trial
Number of Participants: 117

Population:

  • Age — 3-5 years
  • Race/Ethnicity — 89% European American, 5% Latino, 5% Native American, and 1% African American
  • Gender — Regular Foster Care: 58% Male, MTFC-P: 49% Male
  • Status — Participants were foster preschoolers entering a new placement.

Location/Institution: Oregon

Summary: (To include comparison groups, outcomes, measures, notable limitations)
Note: This study uses the same sample as Fisher, Burraston, & Pears (2005). In the Fisher et al. sample, foster children were randomly assigned to receive Multidimensional Treatment Foster Care for Preschoolers (MTFC-P) [now called Treatment Foster Care Oregon for Preschoolers (TFCO-P)] or to a regular foster care condition. The present analysis shows that children in the MTFC-P group showed significantly better morning cortisol levels (associated with stress adaptation) than did those in regular foster care at a measurement period of 8-9 months after entering care. Limitations include small sample size and lack of follow-up.

Length of postintervention follow-up: Not specified.

Fisher, P. A., & Stoolmiller, M. (2008). Intervention effects on foster parent stress: Associations with child cortisol levels. Development and Psychopathology, 20(3), 1003.

Type of Study: Randomized controlled trial
Number of Participants: 177 (117 foster care and 60 community comparison group)

Population:

  • Age — 3-6 years
  • Race/Ethnicity — Foster care group: 85% European American, 8% Latino, 6% Native American, and 1% African American; Community comparison group: 79% European American, 7% Latino, 7% Native American, 5% African American, and 2% Pacific Islander
  • Gender — MTFC-P group: 49% Male, Regular foster care group: 58% Male, Community comparison group: 53%
  • Status — Participants were foster children entering new placements.

Location/Institution: Pacific Northwest, United States

Summary: (To include comparison groups, outcomes, measures, notable limitations)
Note: This study uses the same sample as Fisher, Burraston, & Pears (2005). This study examined whether diurnal cortisol activity was associated with caregiver self-reported stress in response to child problem behavior. Measure utilized was the Parent Daily Report (PDR). All foster care children were part of a larger efficacy trial to evaluate Multidimensional Treatment Foster Care for Preschoolers (MTFC-P) [now called Treatment Foster Care Oregon for Preschoolers (TFCO-P)] and were assigned to intervention or comparison groups at study entry. The community care children were not randomized to different conditions. Results showed immediate reductions in caregiver stress that were sustained through 12 months postbaseline in the intervention condition. In contrast, caregivers in the regular foster care condition showed higher rates of stress across time and increased stress sensitivity to child problem behaviors. In addition, among caregivers in regular foster care, higher self-reported stress was associated with lower morning cortisol levels and more blunted diurnal cortisol activity. Limitations included small sample size and reliance on only morning and evening cortisol samples.

Length of postintervention follow-up: Not specified.

Fisher, P. A., Kim, H. K., & Pears, K. C. (2009). Effects of Multidimentional Treatment Foster Care for Preschoolers (MTFC-P) on reducing permanent failures among children with placement instability. Child and Youth Services Review, 31, 541-546.

Type of Study: Randomized controlled trial
Number of Participants: 52

Population:

  • Age — 3-5 years
  • Race/Ethnicity — 90.4% European American
  • Gender — 27 Boys and 25 Girls
  • Status — Participants were foster children entering new placements.

Location/Institution: Pacific Northwest, United States

Summary: (To include comparison groups, outcomes, measures, notable limitations)
Note: This study uses a subset of the sample from Fisher, Burraston, & Pears (2005). Children in the present sample were those who had experienced 4 or more placements prior to entry into the study. Foster children were randomly assigned to receive Multidimensional Treatment Foster Care for Preschoolers (MTFC-P) [now called Treatment Foster Care Oregon for Preschoolers (TFCO-P)] or to a regular foster care (RFC) condition. Measures included records of the child’s history of permanent placement attempts during the 24 months of the study, and severity of maltreatment history. The results showed that the groups did not differ on permanency attempt rates, but that the MTFC-P group had more than twice as many successful permanency attempts, defined as no subsequent changes during the first 24 months of the study. No effects of maltreatment history were found. The major limitation of the study was the small size of the subsample. Limitations include small sample size and the longitudinal timeframe over which permanency outcomes were examined.

Length of postintervention follow-up: Approximately 15 months.

Pears, K. C., Fisher, P. A., Bruce, J., Kim, H. K., & Yoerger, K. (2010). Early elementary school adjustment of maltreated children in foster care: The roles of inhibitory control and caregiver involvement. Child Development, 81, 1550–1564.

Type of Study: Randomized controlled trial
Number of Participants: 177 (117 foster care; and 60 community comparison group)

Population:

  • Age — 3-6 years
  • Race/Ethnicity — Foster care group: 85% European American, 8% Latino, 6% Native American, and 1% African American; Community comparison group: 79% European American, 5% African American, 7% Latino, 7% Native American, and 2% Pacific Islander
  • Gender — Foster care group: 53% Male, Community comparison group: 54% Male
  • Status — Participants were foster children entering new placements.

Location/Institution: Pacific Northwest, United States

Summary: (To include comparison groups, outcomes, measures, notable limitations)
Note: This study uses the same sample as Fisher, Burraston, & Pears (2005). This study discusses whether disparities in school adjustment can be observed in maltreated foster children as early as kindergarten and first grade. All foster care children were part of a larger efficacy trial to evaluate Multidimensional Treatment Foster Care for Preschoolers (MTFC-P) [now called Treatment Foster Care Oregon for Preschoolers (TFCO-P)] and were assigned to intervention or comparison groups at study entry. The community care children were not randomized to different conditions. The study also sought to identify factors that mediate the association between a history of maltreatment and foster placement and early school. Measures utilized include The Teacher Social Competence, the Loneliness and Social Dissatisfaction Questionnaire for Young Children–Teacher Version, the Walker-McConnell Scales of Social Competence and School Adjustment, and the Seattle Personality Questionnaire. The maltreated foster children performed more poorly in academic and social-emotional competence than the community controls. Inhibitory control fully mediated the association of maltreatment and foster placement with academic competence, whereas inhibitory control and caregiver involvement mediated their association with social-emotional competence. Limitations included small sample size.

Length of postintervention follow-up: Not specified.

Fisher, P. A., Stoolmiller, M., Mannering, A. M., Takahashi, A., & Chamberlain, P. (2011). Foster placement disruptions associated with problem behavior: Mitigating a threshold effect. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 79(4), 481-487.

Type of Study: Randomized controlled trial
Number of Participants: 117

Population:

  • Age — 3-6 years
  • Race/Ethnicity — Regular Foster Care: 93.4% Caucasian, Treatment Foster Care: 82.5% Caucasian
  • Gender — Regular Foster Care: 58.3% Male, Treatment Foster Care: 49.1% Male
  • Status — Participants were foster children entering new placements.

Location/Institution: Pacific Northwest

Summary: (To include comparison groups, outcomes, measures, notable limitations)
Note: This study uses the same sample as Fisher, Burraston, & Pears (2005). This study discusses the effects of placement disruptions on foster children. The study had two objectives: to replicate a prior finding that the number of daily child problem behaviors at entry into a new foster home predicts subsequent placement disruptions in foster preschoolers and to determine whether this association is mitigated by a treatment foster care intervention. The measure utilized for this study was the Parent Daily Report Checklist. Problem behavior and placement disruptions were examined in 60 children in regular foster care and 57 children in in Multidimensional Treatment Foster Care for Preschoolers (MTFC-P) [now called Treatment Foster Care Oregon for Preschoolers (TFCO-P)]. Foster caregivers reported problem behavior 6 times over 3 months. Placement disruptions were tracked over 12 months. The regular foster care children with 5 or fewer problem behaviors were at low risk for disruption, but their risk increased 10% for each additional behavior. The intervention appeared to mitigate this “threshold effect,” the number of problem behaviors did not predict risk of placement disruption in the treatment foster care group. Limitations included generalizability to other types of children in foster care and more ethnically diverse populations.

Length of postintervention follow-up: Not specified.

Fisher, P. A., Van Ryzin, M. J., & Gunnar, M. R. (2011). Mitigating HPA axis dysregulation associated with placement changes in foster care. Psychoneuroendocrinology, 36(4), 531.

Type of Study: Randomized controlled trial
Number of Participants: 117

Population:

  • Age — 3-6 years
  • Race/Ethnicity — Regular Foster Care: 93.4% Caucasian, Treatment Foster Care: 82.5% Caucasian
  • Gender — Regular Foster Care: 58.3% Male, Treatment Foster Care: 49.1% Male
  • Status — Participants were foster children entering new placements.

Location/Institution: Pacific Northwest

Summary: (To include comparison groups, outcomes, measures, notable limitations)
Note: This study uses the same sample as Fisher, Burraston, & Pears (2005). This study examines whether placement changes (i.e., moving between foster homes or from a foster home to a permanent placement) were associated with more blunted daily cortisol rhythms and whether a caregiver-based intervention exerted a protective effect in this context. Results showed that Multidimensional Treatment Foster Care for Preschoolers (MTFC-P) [now called Treatment Foster Care Oregon for Preschoolers (TFCO-P)] mitigates the dysregulating effects of placement changes on children’s diurnal hypothalamic–pituitary–adrenal (HPA) axis activity. Limitations included small sample size and a lack of clarity regarding which intervention components were most effective at stabilizing morning-to-evening cortisol decreases.

Length of postintervention follow-up: Not specified.

Lynch, F. L., Dickerson, J. F., Saldana, L., & Fisher, P. A. (2014). Incremental net benefit of early intervention for preschool-aged children with emotional and behavioral problems in foster care. Children and Youth Services Review, 36, 213-219.

Type of Study: Randomized controlled trial
Number of Participants: 117

Population:

  • Age — 3-5 years
  • Race/Ethnicity — 88.89% European Americans
  • Gender — 67 Females and 50 Males
  • Status — Participants were preschoolers in foster care.

Location/Institution: Oregon

Summary: (To include comparison groups, outcomes, measures, notable limitations)
Note: This study uses the same sample as Fisher, Burraston, & Pears (2005). The objective of this study was to assess net benefit of Multidimensional Treatment Foster Care for Preschoolers (MTFC-P) [now called Treatment Foster Care Oregon for Preschoolers (TFCO-P)] compared to regular foster care. In the Fisher et al. sample, eligible foster children were randomly assigned to MTFC-P or regular foster care (RFC). Measures included the Child Caregiver Interviewer Impressions Form, the Parent Daily Report, the Early Childhood Inventory, and the quality-adjusted life years (QALYS). Results indicate that MTFC-P significantly increased permanent placements for the placement instability sample. Average total cost for the new intervention sample was significantly less than for RFC (full sample: $27,204 vs. $30,090; placement instability sample: $29,595 vs. $36,061). Analyses showed that the value of benefits exceeded costs. Limitations include sample size was relatively small, had limited racial and ethnic diversity, and the intervention was conducted in only one site.

Length of postintervention follow-up: 12-15 months.

References

Chamberlain, P., & Fisher, P. A. (2003). An application of MTFC for early intervention. In P. Chamberlain (Ed.), Treating chronic juvenile offenders: Advances made through the Oregon MTFC model (pp. 129-140). Washington, DC: American Psychological Association.

Fisher, P. A., Ellis, B. H., & Chamberlain, P. (1999). Early intervention foster care: A model for preventing risk in young children who have been maltreated. Children's Services: Social Policy, Research, and Practice, 2, 159-182.

Contact Information

Name: John Aarons
Agency/Affiliation: TFC Consultants, Inc.
Website: www.tfcoregon.com
Email:
Phone: (541) 343-2388 x204

Date Research Evidence Last Reviewed by CEBC: May 2016

Date Program Content Last Reviewed by Program Staff: March 2016

Date Program Originally Loaded onto CEBC: May 2007