Tuning in to Teens™ (TINT)

Scientific Rating:
2
Supported by Research Evidence
See scale of 1-5
Child Welfare System Relevance Level:
Low
See descriptions of 3 levels

About This Program

The information in this program outline is provided by the program representative and edited by the CEBC staff. Tuning in to Teens™ (TINT) has been rated by the CEBC in the area of: Parent Training Programs that Address Behavior Problems in Children and Adolescents.

Target Population: Parents of children and adolescents aged 10-18 years of age

For parents/caregivers of children ages: 10 – 18

Brief Description

TINT is a parenting program that focuses on emotions and is designed to assist parents to establish better relationships with their adolescents. TINT is based on the Tuning in to Kids ® parenting program. TINT teaches parents emotion coaching skills as well as ways of responding to their young person in a way that helps maintain a connected relationship. When adolescents are emotional, parents learn to notice the emotion, name it, show empathy, and then wait for the emotion to subside before trying to talk about the situation leading to the emotional experience and or what to do about it. The program emphasizes connecting and calming before talking about what to do next: this is critical to the success of this process. The program aims to prevent problems developing in adolescents, promote emotional competence (in parents and youth), and when present, reduce and treat problems with adolescent’s emotional and behavioral functioning. Delivery options range from a 6-session program in the community through to a 10-session program for clinical/high-need participants.

Program Goals:

The goals of Tuning in to Teens™ (TINT) are:

  • Increase parents' awareness/regulation of their own emotions and improve their emotional well-being
  • Reduce parents' dismissive or critical reactions to adolescents emotions
  • Increase parents' emotion coaching (i.e., supportive, scaffolding responses to emotions) skills with their adolescents
  • Improve parent-adolescent relationships and reduce conflict
  • Promote emotional competence in adolescents
  • Reduce emotional and behavioural difficulties in adolescents

Essential Components

The essential components of Tuning in to Teens™ (TINT) include:

  • Parents developing stronger relationships with their adolescents by learning how to:
    • Become more emotionally responsive
    • Connect with their young person when the young person is emotional and touse this as an opportunity to teach emotional awareness, understanding, and regulation rather than as a time to withhold attention or punish
    • Reflect on the influences of their family of origin on their parenting
    • Understand the impact of emotionally dismissive versus emotion coaching parenting styles
    • Recognize ‘bids for connection’ the young person makes and be emotionally responsive at these times
    • Manage their own experience of rejection and loss as the young person individuates and is, at times, harsh and rejecting of their parent
    • Shift their parenting skills to be supportive and assist with guiding the young person rather than controlling the young person
    • Manage strong emotions such as sadness, anxiety, and anger in themselves and assist their adolescent to do so
    • If necessary, assist the young person to solve problems and negotiate limits around the young person’s behavior
    • Consider parents’ own well-being and take care of themselves in order to better undertake the important role of parenting
  • Parents of teens who experienced complex trauma utilizing the extended (8-10 session) version of the program to develop stronger relationships with their teens

Parent/Caregiver Services

Tuning in to Teens™ (TINT) directly provides services to parents/caregivers and addresses the following:

  • Parent of a 10-18 year old, especially if there are relationship difficulties with their teen; the parent uses harsh criticism and punishment in response to their teen' expression of emotion; their teen has emotional or behavioral difficulties (e.g., anxiety, depression, somatic complaints, or disruptive behavior problems); or the teen has experienced complex trauma

Delivery Settings

This program is typically conducted in a(n):

  • Community Agency
  • Hospital
  • Outpatient Clinic
  • School

Homework

Tuning in to Teens™ (TINT) includes a homework component:

Each week exercises are recommended, however, these are optional. All parents are encouraged to try out the skills taught in the group at home and to bring back examples for discussion and further role play.

Languages

Tuning in to Teens™ (TINT) has materials available in languages other than English:

Chinese, Vietnamese

For information on which materials are available in these languages, please check on the program's website or contact the program representative (contact information is listed at the bottom of this page).

Resources Needed to Run Program

The typical resources for implementing the program are:

A room with chairs for 6-14 participants, a DVD player and TV, white board and (ideally) 2 facilitators

Minimum Provider Qualifications

Ideally, university qualifications in a discipline such as psychology, social work, occupational therapy, psychiatry, nursing, speech-language therapy, teaching or medicine

Education and Training Resources

There is a manual that describes how to implement this program, and there is training available for this program.

Training Contact:
Training is obtained:

Training is provided either in Melbourne onsite at the University of Melbourne or in the location requested by those requiring training.

Number of days/hours:

2 days with a total of 14 hours

Implementation Information

Since Tuning in to Teens™ (TINT) is rated on the Scientific Rating Scale, information was requested from the program representative on available pre-implementation assessments, implementation tools, and/or fidelity measures.

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Pre-Implementation Materials

There are no pre-implementation materials to measure organizational or provider readiness for Tuning in to Teens™ (TINT).

Formal Support for Implementation

There is formal support available for implementation of Tuning in to Teens™ (TINT) as listed below:

The Training Manager, Ann Harley, along with other team members, provide implementation supervision and support to agencies that are setting up Tuning in to Teens programs. The program staff can provide support on implementation of the program within a tailored setting. They have extensive experience in doing this across a wide range of community and clinical contexts. Ongoing supervision can also be provided.

Fidelity Measures

There are fidelity measures for Tuning in to Teens™ (TINT) as listed below:

Each session of the program has a fidelity checklist that is part of the manual.

Implementation Guides or Manuals

There are no implementation guides or manuals for Tuning in to Teens™ (TINT).

Research on How to Implement the Program

Research has not been conducted on how to implement Tuning in to Teens™ (TINT).

Relevant Published, Peer-Reviewed Research

This program is rated a "2 - Supported by Research Evidence" on the Scientific Rating Scale based on the published, peer-reviewed research available. The program must have at least one rigorous randomized controlled trial with a sustained effect of at least 6 months. The article(s) below that reports outcomes from an RCT showing a sustained effect of at least 6 months has an asterisk (*) at the beginning of its entry. Please see the Scientific Rating Scale for more information.

Child Welfare Outcome: Child/Family Well-Being

Show relevant research...

Kehoe, C. E., Havighurst, S. S., & Harley, A. E. (2014). Tuning in to Teens: Improving parent emotion socialization to reduce youth internalizing difficulties. Social Development, 23(2), 413-431. doi:10.1111/sode.12060

Type of Study: Randomized controlled trial
Number of Participants: 449

Population:

  • Age — Children: 10-13 years, Parents: Mean=44.1 years
  • Race/Ethnicity — Children: Not specified; Parents: 89.7% Caucasian, 8.1% Asian, and 2.2% African
  • Gender — Children: 49% Boys, Parents: 200 Mothers and 25 Fathers
  • Status — Participants were parents and children with recruited through schools.

Location/Institution: Melbourne, Australia

Summary: (To include comparison groups, outcomes, measures, notable limitations)
The current study examined the efficacy of the Tuning in to Teens (TINT) parenting program in improving emotion socialization practices in parents of preadolescents and reducing youth internalizing difficulties. Schools were randomized into intervention and control conditions and 225 primary caregiving parents and 224 youth took part in the study. Measures included the General Health Questionnaire (GHQ), Difficulties in Emotion Regulation Scale (DERS), the Emotions as a Child Scales (EAC), the Spence Children’s Anxiety Scale (SCAS), and the Spence Child Anxiety Scale for Parents (SCAS-P). Results indicate that TINT parents, but not control parents, reported significant improvements in parents’ internalizing difficulties and reductions in parents’ difficulties with emotion awareness and regulation at postintervention follow-up (length noted below). Both parents and youth in the TINT sample reported significant reductions in parents’ dismissing responses to the young person’s emotions, but there was no change for control dyads. TINT, but not control parents, reported significant reductions in youth anxiety and depressive symptoms. Limitations include control group parents were not offered an intervention on a waitlist basis, reliability of self-report measures, and generalizability of findings due to youth coming from predominantly white, middle-to-higher income two-parent families.

Length of postintervention follow-up: Approximately 8-10 months.

Havighurst, S. S., Kehoe, C. E., & Harley, A. E. (2015). Tuning in to Teens: Improving parental responses to anger and reducing youth externalizing behavior problems. Journal of Adolescence, 42, 148-158. doi:10.1016/j.adolescence.2015.04.005

Type of Study: Randomized controlled trial
Number of Participants: 449

Population:

  • Age — Children: 10-13 years, Parents: Mean=44.1 years
  • Race/Ethnicity — Children: Not specified; Parents: 89.7% Caucasian, 8.1% Asian, and 2.2% African
  • Gender — Children: 49% Boys, Parents: 200 Mothers and 25 Fathers
  • Status — Participants were parents and children with recruited through schools

Location/Institution: Melbourne, Australia

Summary: (To include comparison groups, outcomes, measures, notable limitations)
This study utilized information from Kehoe et al. (2014). This study examined the efficacy of the Tuning in to Teens (TINT) program in improving emotion socialization practices in parents and whether this reduced family conflict and youth externalizing. Schools were randomized into intervention and control conditions and 225 primary caregiving parents and 224 youth took part in the study. Measures included the Difficulties in Emotion Regulation Scale (DERS), the Emotions as a Child Scales (EAC), the Family Conflict Scale (FCS), and the Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire. Results indicate intervention parents reported they were less dismissing of youth sadness, anger and anxiety compared to control parents. Intervention youth also reported significant reductions in parents' dismissing anger and anxiety, compared to control youth who reported no change. Both intervention and control youth reported no change in parents' dismissing sadness. Both parents and youth from the intervention condition reported a significant reduction in family conflict at follow-up, compared with control participants who reported no change. Finally, parent- and youth-reported youth externalizing behavior problems, indicating greater reductions for the intervention group, compared to control group at 10.5 month follow-up (on average). Limitations include generalizability of the results due to not using a more culturally and socio-economically diverse population and reliability on self-reported measures.

Length of postintervention follow-up: Approximately 8-10 months.

Kehoe, C. E., Havighurst, S. S., & Harley, A. E. (2015). Somatic complaints in early adolescence: The role of parents’ emotion socialization. Journal of Early Adolescence, 35(7), 966-989. doi:10.1177/0272431614547052

Type of Study: Randomized controlled trial
Number of Participants: 449

Population:

  • Age — Children: 10-13 years, Parents: Mean=44.1 years
  • Race/Ethnicity — Children: Not specified; Parents: 89.7% Caucasian, 8.1% Asian, and 2.2% African
  • Gender — Children: 49% Boys, Parents: 200 Mothers and 25 Fathers
  • Status — Participants were parents and children with recruited through schools.

Location/Institution: Melbourne, Australia

Summary: (To include comparison groups, outcomes, measures, notable limitations)
This study utilized information from Kehoe et al. (2014). The current study examined the efficacy of the Tuning in to Teens (TINT) parenting program in the efficacy of TINT in reducing youth somatic complaints (SC) using both baseline and 10 months follow-up data. Schools were randomized into intervention and control conditions and 225 primary caregiving parents and 224 youth took part in the study. Measures included the General Health Questionnaire (GHQ), the Child Behavior Checklist (CBCL), the Youth Self-Report, the Emotions as a Child Scales (EAC), the Spence children’s anxiety scale (SCAS), and the Spence Child Anxiety Scale for Parents (SCAS-P). Results indicate that intervention parents, reported changes in parents’ awareness and regulation of emotion and emotion socialization practices and this resulted in reduced youth somatic complaints compared to the control group at postintervention follow-up (see length below). Results also reported intervention youth-reported SC were unrelated to parents’ difficulties with emotion awareness/regulation and parental SC, and parent-reported youth SC were unrelated to parent-reported parent emotion dismissing compared to the control group at follow-up. Parent emotion dismissing and parents’ difficulties in emotion awareness/regulation were, however, positively correlated with youth negative affect and anxiety (parent and youth report when compared to the control group at follow-up. Limitations include reliability of self-report measures and participants were not blind to condition and parents who selected to take part in the intervention reported greater youth SC at baseline.

Length of postintervention follow-up: Approximately 8-10 months.

References

Havighurst, S. S., Harley, A. E., Kehoe, C., & Pizarro, E. (2012). Tuning in to Teens: Emotionally intelligent parenting program manual. Melbourne: The University of Melbourne.

Contact Information

Name: Ann Harley, MA
Title: Training Manager
Agency/Affiliation: Training Manager, Tuning in to Kids, Mindful, University of Melbourne
Website: www.tuningintokids.org.au
Email:
Phone: (613) 937-1021 x0
Fax: (613) 937-1025 x0

Date Research Evidence Last Reviewed by CEBC: March 2016

Date Program Content Last Reviewed by Program Staff: April 2016

Date Program Originally Loaded onto CEBC: May 2016