Positive Peer Culture (PPC)

Scientific Rating:
Supported by Research Evidence
See scale of 1-5

Additional Implementation Resources

Since this program Positive Peer Culture (PPC) was highly rated on the Scientific Rating Scale, program representatives were asked to provide additional implementation information.

Pre-Implementation Materials

There are no pre-implementation materials to measure organizational or provider readiness for Positive Peer Culture (PPC).

Formal Support for Implementation

There is formal support available for implementation of Positive Peer Culture (PPC) as listed below:

Coaching and consultation implementation are provided through Reclaiming Youth at Risk. This includes both on-site and via e-mail, teleconferencing, or videoconferencing. Consultation is given to leadership staff in integrating this model with that unique setting. Fidelity is monitored and periodic treatment environmental surveys are conducted. Agencies maintain this consultation for at least one year, and beyond as needed. Refresher training is available and recommended at three-year intervals.

Fidelity Measures

There are fidelity measures for Positive Peer Culture (PPC) as listed below:

Fidelity measures are now included in the PPC manual and two-day certification training in PPC. The first fidelity measure is Potential Misuse of Peer Group Methodology which is in narrative form describing ten abuses identified by earlier research on PPC. This is included in initial training and programs are expected to review this list at a minimum of 6-month intervals. The second fidelity measure is the Treatment Environmental Survey which is a Likert-scored instrument completed by both staff and youth, initially to establish a pre-implementation baseline and then periodically to track the climate of the program. Eight subscales are used to represent the quality of the treatment environment. These include two negative factors (peer intimidation and negative youth counterculture) and six positive factors (treatment effectiveness, staff effectiveness, staff-youth relationships, communication, staff involvement, and family values). Standardized norms have been established for youth and staff who complete the Treatment Environmental Survey so organizations can compare their program performance with 21 organizations in the standardization sample.

Implementation Guides or Manuals

There are implementation guides or manuals for Positive Peer Culture (PPC) as listed below:

Brendtro, L., & Foltz, R. (2020). Peer group treatment: A logic model for reclaiming youth at risk. Resilience Resources.

Research on How to Implement the Program

Research has been conducted on how to implement Positive Peer Culture (PPC) as listed below:

Brendtro, L., & Ness, A. (1982). Perspectives on peer group treatment: The use and abuse of Guided Group Interaction/Positive Peer Culture. Children and Youth Services, 4(4), 307-324. https://doi.org/10.1016/0190-7409(82)90012-3

Li, J., & Julian, M. (2012). Developmental relationships as the active ingredient: A unifying working hypothesis of “What works” across intervention settings. American Journal of Orthopsychiatry, 82(2), 157–166. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1939-0025.2012.01151.x

Yang, H., Davis, R., Ryan, J., & Wasmund, W. (1999). Assessing the climate of residential programs. Development and application of youth environmental survey. Starr Commonwealth.