Connect: An Attachment-Based Program for Parents and Caregivers

About This Program

Target Population: Caregivers (biological parents, foster parents, kinship caregivers, etc.) of preadolescents (ages 8-12) and adolescents ages (13-19)

For parents/caregivers of children ages: 8 – 19

Program Overview

Connect is a 10-week manualized program delivered in a group format to parents and caregivers of preteens and teens with serious behavioural and internalizing problems. Treatment goals include reductions in child externalizing and internalizing problems and caregiver strain and depressed mood; and increases in parenting/family satisfaction and parent-child attachment security. This is designed to be accomplished by promoting parenting sensitivity, reflective function, dyadic affect regulation and mutuality. Sessions introduce attachment principles that specifically focus on adolescence and parenting, and include role-plays and reflection activities that promote parental self-reflection, learning, and parenting skill development. The program integrates trauma-informed practice and adopts a strengths-based and collaborative approach. Connect can be delivered by a range of health and education professionals in hospitals, mental health centers, community agencies, and schools. There is a specialized adaptation for foster parents called Connect for Foster Parents that focuses intensively on trauma, attachment, and caregiving; this adaptation has not been reviewed or rated by the CEBC.

Program Goals

The goals of Connect: An Attachment-Based Program for Parents and Caregivers are:

  • Increase parental sensitivity – the capacity of parents to be aware of and responsive to the feelings, thoughts, and internal experiences of their child
  • Increase parental reflective function – the capacity of parents to be aware of their own feelings, thoughts, and internal experiences that drive their reactions to their child
  • Increase the capacity of parents to regulate their own and their child’s emotional distress especially as it relates to the parent-child relationship
  • Increase capacity of parents to promote mutuality and partnership within the parent-child relationship especially as it relates to problem solving
  • Decrease externalizing problems including symptoms of conduct disorder, oppositional defiant disorder, and attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD); and parent-child conflict
  • Decrease internalizing problems including anxiety and depression
  • Increase in parenting sense of satisfaction and efficacy; and in family satisfaction
  • Decrease caregiver stress and depressed mood
  • Increase parent-child attachment security

Essential Components

The essential components of Connect: An Attachment-Based Program for Parents and Caregivers include:

  • Group facilitators complete a standardized three-day training workshop and videotape-based supervision to achieve certification.
  • A detailed program manual provides group facilitators with the clinical-developmental foundations for each session as well as an explicit session protocol.
  • The program begins with a structured interview with each caregiver, welcomes them to the program, integrates Motivational Interviewing, and addresses barriers to attendance. Two group facilitators then deliver ten sessions, each 1.5 hours in length, to groups of 8-14 caregivers.
  • Group facilitators begin each session with the discussion of a developmental and trauma-informed attachment principle as it relates to preadolescent and adolescent development and caregiving.
  • Group facilitators engage in role plays to illustrate the application of each principle and lead parents through a set of reflective questions designed to promote parental sensitivity, reflective function, awareness of the need to regulate parental and child emotional distress, and to sustain mutuality and partnership during conflict. Group facilitators use the same set of reflective questions throughout the program to support skill development.
  • Group facilitators direct discussion with parents on how to apply the attachment principles to rescript role-plays with the goal of understanding the attachment meaning of the child’s behavior, promoting security within the parent-child relationship, and at the same time setting limits and upholding expectations. Group facilitators engage in rescripted role-plays to consolidate learning.
  • Parents participate in role-plays as the child and are encouraged to reflect with the group on their feelings, thoughts, and behaviors in this role. Group facilitators guide discussion about the importance of stepping into the experience of the child while maintaining a parental role.
  • Reflection questions are used to promote parental understanding of the impact of their child’s and their own past experiences in shaping the expression of attachment needs.
  • Group facilitators provide information and illustrate the importance of verbal and nonverbal communication skills in each session.
  • Group facilitators distribute and discuss parent handouts that provide a summary of the key points of each session.
  • Group facilitators apply therapeutic techniques adapted from attributional retraining, Cognitive-Behavioral Therapy, mindfulness-based therapy, communication training, and relapse prevention, which are integrated throughout the sessions.
  • Group facilitators lead structured discussions regarding the impact of trauma in relation to the background and needs of caregivers in each group.
  • Group facilitators apply the attachment principles in managing group dynamics to better understand the needs of caregivers and to provide safe haven and secure base during the program.
  • The program concludes with a Feedback and Integration session that provides caregivers with the opportunity to complete a client survey and participate in a semistructured group interview reflecting on their experience in the program, recommendations for program modifications, and feedback to group facilitators. The feedback session is led by an agency lead or alternate clinician and provides standardized information on the value of the program that can be compared to an established database and used for service delivery planning.
  • Group facilitators provide booster sessions to support caregivers following program completion.
  • Connect adopts a structured, strengths-focused, trauma-informed, relational perspective that engages parents in experiential learning and skill development.
  • The foster parent adaptation of Connect explicitly addresses issues of trauma, attachment and caregiving challenges that are unique to foster care, such as loyalty conflict and balancing care for foster versus biological children. Trauma, attachment, and caregiving are explicitly discussed in detail in the foster parent version of the program. This adaptation has not been reviewed or rated by the CEBC.

Program Delivery

Parent/Caregiver Services

Connect: An Attachment-Based Program for Parents and Caregivers directly provides services to parents/caregivers and addresses the following:

  • Parent/caregiver of preteens and teens with serious behavioral and internalizing problems and/or of teens who have poor emotion regulation and disrupted and insecure attachment; and who experience significant caregiver stress, depressed mood, low sense of parenting efficacy and satisfaction, and low family satisfaction themself

Recommended Intensity:

Contact includes a pretreatment engagement interview (1-2 hours), followed by weekly 90-minute group. Booster sessions are available and are optional. Caregivers also receive weekly session reminders, and catch-up appointments if sessions are missed.

Recommended Duration:

Parents are recruited through a pretreatment engagement interview that can be scheduled between one week and one month prior to the beginning of the group. Once enrolled, the program runs for 10 weeks

Delivery Settings

This program is typically conducted in a(n):

  • Community Agency
  • Hospital
  • Outpatient Clinic
  • School

Homework

This program does not include a homework component.

Languages

Connect: An Attachment-Based Program for Parents and Caregivers has materials available in languages other than English:

French, Italian, Swedish

For information on which materials are available in these languages, please check on the program's website or contact the program representative (contact information is listed at the bottom of this page).

Resources Needed to Run Program

The typical resources for implementing the program are:

Two certified Connect group facilitators, meeting space to accommodate 10-15 people, whiteboard/standing flipchart, recommended provision of babysitting and transportation supplements, and food and beverages for a snack or meal. Videotaping is required for supervision during the certification period.

Education and Training

Prerequisite/Minimum Provider Qualifications

Minimum educational requirements are not specified; however, the majority of service providers who complete Connect training possess a minimum of a specialized bachelor’s degree or graduate training. Trainees should possess a background in mental health or have education in clinical service delivery with a strong commitment and focus on working with families. Experience in the delivery of group-based interventions is recommended. Trainees should be comfortable with structured and manualized programs. This program is best suited to trainees who are open to relational-based interventions, familiar with concepts of attachment and trauma, and ready to engage in collaborative and reflective supervision. Experience in working with teens or with caregivers of teens is helpful.

Education and Training Resources

There is a manual that describes how to implement this program , and there is training available for this program.

Training Contact:
  • Dr. Marlene Moretti
    Simon Fraser University, Burnaby, BC, Canada

    phone: (778) 782-4956
Training is obtained:

Connect training is organized nationally and internationally onsite and is also scheduled regionally based on interest and training needs. In British Columbia, Canada, Connect training is provided provincially through government services. For more information on Connect in British Columbia, contact the Adolescent Health Lab (email: ConnectProject@sfu.ca) or Dr. Marlene M. Moretti (email: moretti@sfu.ca).

Number of days/hours:

Trainees must complete a mandatory three-day intensive Connect training workshop, 8:30 am to 4:30 pm. Additional time is required for reviewing the program manual in advance of the training workshop and for homework during the workshop. Subsequently, trainees receive clinical supervision based on videotape review to achieve certification on a weekly basis. Each week, trainees review their own tapes and receive supervision by teleconference from a certified Connect supervisor. In total, trainees participate in a minimum of 10-12 hours of clinical supervision to achieve certification. Additional supervision can be provided, if needed, to achieve certification.

Additional Resources:

There currently are additional qualified resources for training:

Training is also available through a number of North American and international sites/agencies. Information is provided upon request.

Implementation Information

Pre-Implementation Materials

There are no pre-implementation materials to measure organizational or provider readiness for Connect: An Attachment-Based Program for Parents and Caregivers.

Formal Support for Implementation

There is formal support available for implementation of Connect: An Attachment-Based Program for Parents and Caregivers as listed below:

Support is provided by Connect trainers and through contact with the Connect Training Team to discuss engagement and implementation challenges. Connect supervisors provide support to trainees on how to engage families and to support program completion. Technical assistance is not provided. For more information contact the Adolescent Health Lab (email: ConnectProject@sfu.ca) or Dr. Marlene M. Moretti (email: moretti@sfu.ca).

Fidelity Measures

There are fidelity measures for Connect: An Attachment-Based Program for Parents and Caregivers as listed below:

Sessions are videotaped and reviewed during the certification period to monitor treatment adherence and fidelity. Trainees and their supervisors review the tapes and complete a Session Reflection Form that focuses on key session components.

Program delivery is also monitored through the standardized client feedback form and the semi-structured group interview that is completed by a third party in the final session of the program. Client feedback can be compared across Connect groups to assess the relative fit and utility of the intervention for caregivers.

Implementation Guides or Manuals

There are no implementation guides or manuals for Connect: An Attachment-Based Program for Parents and Caregivers.

Research on How to Implement the Program

Research has not been conducted on how to implement Connect: An Attachment-Based Program for Parents and Caregivers.

Relevant Published, Peer-Reviewed Research

This program is rated a "3 - Promising Research Evidence" on the Scientific Rating Scale based on the published, peer-reviewed research available. The practice must have at least one study utilizing some form of control (e.g., untreated group, placebo group, matched wait list study) establishing the practice's benefit over the placebo, or found it to be comparable to or better than an appropriate comparison practice. Please see the Scientific Rating Scale for more information.

Child Welfare Outcome: Child/Family Well-Being

Moretti, M. M., Holland, R., Moore, K., & McKay, S. (2004). An attachment-based parenting program for caregivers of severely conduct-disordered adolescents: Preliminary findings. Journal of Child and Youth Care Work, 19, 170-179.

Type of Study: One-group pretest-posttest study
Number of Participants: 16

Population:

  • Age — Adults: Not specified, Adolescents: 13-16 years (Mean=14.80 years)
  • Race/Ethnicity — Not specified
  • Gender — Adults: 16 Female and 8 Male, Adolescents: 8 Male and 8 Female
  • Status — Participants were youth referred by a provincial facility that serves the needs of severely conduct-disordered youth.

Location/Institution: Maples Adolescent Treatment Centre

Summary: (To include comparison groups, outcomes, measures, notable limitations)
This study was aimed at assessing the effects of Connect to assess the impact on parent reports of youth behaviour problems, and parents' perceptions of the significance and helpfulness of the interventions. Measures utilized include the Child Behavior Checklist (CBCL). Results showed parents' ratings of their adolescents' behaviour problems dropped significantly over the course of the program, and their ratings of the attachment parenting group were very positive. Limitations include lack of randomization, lack of control group, small sample size, and lack of follow-up.

Length of postintervention follow-up: None.

Moretti, M., & Obsuth, I. (2009). Effectiveness of an attachment-focused manualized intervention for parents of teens at risk for aggressive behaviour: The Connect Program. Journal of Adolescence, 32(6), 1347-1357. doi:10.1016/j.adolescence.2009.07.013

Type of Study: Pretest-posttest study
Number of Participants: Study 1: 40; Study 2: 618

Population:

  • Age — Study 1: Adults: Not specified, Youth: 12-16 years (Mean=14.50 years); Study 2: Adults: Not specified, Youth: (Mean=13.53-13.73 years)
  • Race/Ethnicity — Not specified
  • Gender — Study 1: Adults: Not specified, Youth: 13 Male and 7 Female; Study 2: Adults: 89% Female and 11% Male, Youth: 174 Male and 135 Female
  • Status — Participants were parents with youth who displayed risk behaviors.

Location/Institution: British Columbia in Canada

Summary: (To include comparison groups, outcomes, measures, notable limitations)
The purpose of this study is to summarize two additional studies evaluating the effectiveness of the Connect program in regards to reductions in teen problem behaviour and other mental health problems; as well as in Study 2, parent decreases in caregiver burden and verbal and physical aggression within their relationship with their teen. Study 1 presents findings based on a waitlist control evaluation of Connect, including posttreatment and one year follow-up outcomes. Measures utilized include the Caregiver Strain Questionnaire (CGSQ), the Brief Child and Family Phone Interview (BCFPI), the Affect Regulation Checklist (ARC), the Treatment Engagement and Client Satisfaction, and the Conflict Tactics Scale-modified (CTS). Results showed significant increases in perceived parenting satisfaction and significant reductions occurred in parental reports of caregiver burden as well as parental aggression toward youth for those in the Connect group. In Study 2, results also indicated on parent reports of adolescent problem behaviour changes across several indices with the largest effect on youth’s decreased aggression toward their parents. Results from Study 1 were maintained for one year posttreatment. Not only were small to medium effects observed over the course of treatment, as compared to the waitlist period, but these changes were maintained or deepened over the follow-up period. Limitations include lack of randomization and lack of control.

Length of postintervention follow-up: 1 year.

Moretti, M. M., Obsuth, I., Mayseless, O., & Scharf, M. (2012). Shifting internal parent-child representations among caregivers of teens with serious behaviour problems: An attachment-based approach. Journal of Child and Adolescent Trauma, 5, 191-204.

Type of Study: One group pretest-posttest study
Number of Participants: 70

Population:

  • Age — Adults: 29-54 years (Mean=42.1 years); Youth: 11-16 years (Mean=14.78 years)
  • Race/Ethnicity — Adults: 95% Caucasian and 5% South/Southeast Asian
  • Gender — Adults: 27 Female and 4 Male; Youth: 15 Female and 16 Male
  • Status — Participants were parents of teens with behavior problems.

Location/Institution: Vancouver, BC

Summary: (To include comparison groups, outcomes, measures, notable limitations)
The current study investigated whether parents completing the Connect program showed changes in parenting representation. Measures utilized include the Parenting Representations Interview–Adolescence (PRI-A) and the Child Behavior Checklist (CBCL). Results reported significant reductions in teen externalizing, internalizing, and total behavior problems over the course of treatment. Additionally, results indicated parents’ narratives revealed increased secure base, mutuality, and positive feelings, but also greater monitoring and perceived acceptance of parental authority. Limitations include lack of randomization, lack of control group, and lack of follow-up.

Length of postintervention follow-up: None.

Giannotta, F. F., Ortega, E., & Stattin, H. (2013). An attachment parenting intervention to prevent adolescents’ problem behaviors: A pilot study in Italy. Child & Youth Care Forum, 42(1), 71-85. doi:10.1007/s10566-012-9189-3

Type of Study: Pretest-posttest with control group
Number of Participants: 147

Population:

  • Age — Adults: 20-60 years; Children: 3-12 years
  • Race/Ethnicity — Not specified
  • Gender — Not specified
  • Status — Participants were parents with youth who displayed risk behaviors.

Location/Institution: Italy

Summary: (To include comparison groups, outcomes, measures, notable limitations)
This study was aimed at assessing the feasibility and the effects of Connect in Italy to reduce risk behaviors among youths. Parents were randomized either to Connect (intervention group =IG) or a wait-list control group (CG). The parents in the CG received the tailored parenting intervention after all follow-up measurements were completed in both groups. Measures utilized include the Eyberg Child Behavior Inventory (ECBI), the Treatment Engagement and Client Satisfaction Scale, the Parenting Sense of Competence Scale (PSOC), and the Parental Behavioral Control Scale. Results showed despite difficulty in recruiting parents, the program held promising effects regarding the prevention of alcohol use at a universal level; the intervention also marginally decreased the level of nonempathic answers from parents, at least in the short term. Limitations include attrition in both the treatment and the control groups, small size of the sample, the lack of randomized design, and lack of follow-up.

Length of postintervention follow-up: None.

Moretti, M. M., Obsuth, I., Craig, S. G., & Bartolo, T. (2015). An attachment-based intervention for parents of adolescents at risk: Mechanisms of change. Attachment and Human Development, 18, 1-17. doi:10.1080/14616734.2015.1006383

Type of Study: One group pretest-posttest study
Number of Participants: 1080 (540 adults/540 adolescents)

Population:

  • Age — Adults: Mean=44.01 years, Adolescent: Male-Mean=13.87 years and Female-Mean=14.05 years
  • Race/Ethnicity — Adults: 80.6% Caucasian, 9.4% Aboriginal, 5.5% Asian, and 4.5% Other; Adolescents: Not specified
  • Gender — Adults: 83% Female, Adolescents: 279 Male and 261 Female
  • Status — Participants were referred by community mental health centers or schools due to concerns regarding their teen’s mental health and behavioral functioning.

Location/Institution: Not specified

Summary: (To include comparison groups, outcomes, measures, notable limitations)
The current study examined processes that may underlie treatment outcomes of Connect for parents of pre-teens and teens with serious behavior problems. Measures utilized include the Brief Child and Family Phone Interview (BCFPI), the Affect Regulation Checklist (ARC), and the Comprehensive Adolescent–Parent Attachment Inventory (CAPAI). Results confirmed significant decreases in parents’ reports of teens’ externalizing and internalizing symptoms, replicating prior evaluations of this program. Reductions in parents’ reports of teen attachment avoidance were associated with decreases in externalizing symptoms, while reductions in parents’ reports of teen attachment anxiety were associated with decreases in internalizing symptoms. Parents’ reports of improved teen affect regulation were also associated with decreases in both internalizing and externalizing symptoms. Limitations include lack of randomization, lack of control group, reliance on self-reported measures, and lack of follow-up.

Length of postintervention follow-up: None.

Stattin, H., Enebrink, P., Özdemir, M., & Giannotta, F. (2015). A national evaluation of parenting programs in Sweden: The short-term effects using an RCT effectiveness design. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 83(6), 1069-1084. doi:10.1037/a0039328

Type of Study: Randomized controlled trial
Number of Participants: 908

Population:

  • Age — Adults: Not specified, Children: 3-12 years (Mean=12.46 years)
  • Race/Ethnicity — Not specified
  • Gender — Not specified
  • Status — Participants were parents with youth who had externalizing problems.

Location/Institution: Sweden

Summary: (To include comparison groups, outcomes, measures, notable limitations)
This study tested the effectiveness of Comet,Community Parent Education (COPE), Incredible Years and Connect in reducing child behavior problems and attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) symptoms, in improving positive parenting and parenting competence, and in decreasing negative parenting and parents’ stress and depressive symptoms. Parents were randomly assigned to 1 of 2 parent training programs or to a wait-list condition. Measures utilized include the Eyberg Child Behavior Inventory (ECBI), the Parents’ Sense of Competence measure (PSOC), the Caregiver Strain Questionnaire, the 20-item Center of Epidemiological Studies—Depression Scale, the Swanson, Nolan, and Pelham Rating Scale (SNAP- IV), the Angry Outbursts scale, and the Parents Practice Interview. Results showed at posttreatment, children whose parents had received interventions showed a strong decrease in child conduct problems and a moderate to strong decrease in ADHD symptoms. About half of parents whose children scored over the 95th percentile on the behavior measures (ECBI, SNAP-IV), reported that their children were no longer above the cutoff after the intervention. Parents showed considerably less negative behaviors toward their children at posttest compared with pretest; they increased in parental competence, and decreased in both stress and depressive symptoms. Limitations include reliance on self-reporting measures and length of follow-up.

Length of postintervention follow-up: 3-4 months.

Högström, J., Olofsson, V., Özdemir, M., Enebrink, P., & Stattinet, H. (2017). Two-year findings from a national effectiveness trial: Effectiveness of behavioral and non-behavioral parenting programs. Journal of Abnormal Child Psychology, 45(3), 527–542. doi:10.1007/s10802-016-0178-0

Type of Study: Randomized controlled trial
Number of Participants: 749

Population:

  • Age — Adults: Not specified, Children: 3-12 years
  • Race/Ethnicity — Not specified
  • Gender — Adults: Not specified, Children: 63% Male
  • Status — Participants were parents who had sought help at 30 local service sector units (e.g., child psychiatric clinics and social services centers) for major problems in managing their children’s externalizing behavior.

Location/Institution: Four sites in Sweden: Stockholm, Örebro, Göteborg, and Lund

Summary: (To include comparison groups, outcomes, measures, notable limitations)
This study evaluated the 2-year effects of 4 programs: Comet, Incredible Years,Community Parent Education (COPE), and Connect and differences in the rate of change among programs were investigated using Latent Growth Modeling (LGM). Children in the age range of 3 to 8 years old were randomized to Comet, Incredible Years and Cope; children in the age range of 9 to 12 years old were randomized to Comet, Cope and Connect. Participants in the Incredible Years groups were aged 3 to 8, participants in the Connect groups 9 to 12, and participants in the Comet and Cope groups 3 to 12. Measures utilized include the Eyberg Child Behavior Inventory (ECBI), the Swanson, Nolan, and Pelham Questionnaire (SNAP-IV), the Parents’ Practice Interview (PPI), the Parenting Sense of Competence scale (PSOC), and the Parental Behavioral Control Scale. Results showed that despite difficulty in recruiting parents, the program held promising effects regarding the prevention of alcohol use at a universal level; the intervention also marginally decreased the level of nonempathic answers from parents, at least in the short term. Limitations include the study did not include reports from multiple sources (e.g., teachers or observations), two of the parent training programs were compared despite the fact that children in these programs did not overlap in terms of age (Incredible Years and Connect), and only able to compare the programs with each other and not with an untreated control group at the 2-year follow-up.

Length of postintervention follow-up: 2 years.

Osman, F., Flacking, R., Schön, U., & Klingberg-Allvin, M. (2017). A support program for Somali-born parents on children’s behavioral problems. Pediatrics. Advance online publication. doi:10.1542/peds.2016-2764

Type of Study: Randomized controlled trial
Number of Participants: 120

Population:

  • Age — Adults: 44-45 years, Children: 11-16 years
  • Race/Ethnicity — 100% Somalian
  • Gender — 80 Female and 40 Male
  • Status — Participants were parents with stress in relation to parenting practices recruited from Somali associations, social services, and schools; a family center; and through key persons.

Location/Institution: Sweden

Summary: (To include comparison groups, outcomes, measures, notable limitations)
The objectives of this study were to evaluate the Connect parenting support program for Somali-born parents and to determine its effectiveness on children’s emotional and behavioral problems. Parents were randomized either to Connect (intervention group=IG) or a wait-list control group (CG). The parents in the CG received the tailored parenting intervention after all follow-up measurements were completed in both groups. Measures utilized include the Child Behavior Checklist for Ages 6 to 18 (CBCL 6–18). Results showed significant improvement in the children in the IG for behavioral problems after a 2-month follow-up. Limitations include cannot determine whether it was the Connect program alone, the culturally tailored societal information alone, or the combination of both factors that improved the children’s behavioral problems, cannot be generalized to other immigrants in Sweden, and length of follow-up .

Length of postintervention follow-up: 2 months.

Osman, F., Salari, R., Klingberg-Allvin, M., Schön, U. K., & Flacking, R. (2017). Effects of a culturally tailored parenting support programme in Somali-born parents’ mental health and sense of competence in parenting: A randomised controlled trial. BMJ Open, 7(12), e017600. doi:10.1136/bmjopen-2017-017600

Type of Study: Randomized controlled trial
Number of Participants: 120

Population:

  • Age — Adults: 44-45 years, Children: 11-16 years
  • Race/Ethnicity — 100% Somalian
  • Gender — Adults: 80 Female and 40 Male; Children: 69 Male
  • Status — Participants were parents with stress in relation to parenting practices recruited from Somali associations, social services, schools, and a family center; and through key persons.

Location/Institution: Sweden

Summary: (To include comparison groups, outcomes, measures, notable limitations)
To evaluate the effectiveness of a culturally tailored parenting support programme (Connect) on Somali-born parents’ mental health and sense of competence in parenting. The parenting intervention consisted of 12 group-based sessions lasting on average about 1-2 hours, combining culturally tailored societal information with the Connect parenting support programme. The aim of the culturally tailored societal information aspect of the intervention was to give Somali-born parents an introduction on parenting styles, the rights of the child, the family legal system in relation to parenting, and the goal of the work of social services with children and family. The other 10 sessions constituted the Connect parenting support programme. The Connect programme was adapted and modified in relation to role play and examples to make it understandable for the participants without changing the programme’s core components. Parents were randomized either to Connect (intervention group=IG) or a wait-list control group (CG). The parents in the CG received the tailored parenting intervention after all follow-up measurements were completed in both groups. Measures utilized include the General Health Questionnaire 12 (GHQ-12) and the Parenting Sense of Competence (PSOC) scale. Results indicated that parents in the intervention group showed significant improvement in mental health compared with the parents in the control group at a 2-month follow-up. Further, significant improvement was found for efficacy and satisfaction for parents in the intervention group. Limitations include reliance on self-reported measures, cannot be generalized to other immigrants in Sweden, and length of follow-up.

Length of postintervention follow-up: 2 months.

Additional References

Moretti, M. M., Pasalich, D. S., & O’Donnell, K. A., (2017). Connect: An attachment-based program for parents of teens. In H. Steele & M. Steele (Eds.), Handbook of attachment-based interventions (1st ed.). New York: Guilford Publications.

Rooth, H., Forinder, U., Piuva, K., & Söderbäck, M. (2017). An assessment of two parenting training manuals used in Swedish parenting interventions. Children & Society, 31(6), 510-522. doi:10.1111/chso.12220

Contact Information

Dr. Marlene Moretti, PhD
Agency/Affiliation: Simon Fraser University
Website: connectparentgroup.org
Email:
Phone: (778) 782-4956

Date Research Evidence Last Reviewed by CEBC: March 2018

Date Program Content Last Reviewed by Program Staff: April 2018

Date Program Originally Loaded onto CEBC: April 2018