Helping the Noncompliant Child (HNC)

Scientific Rating:
3
Promising Research Evidence
See scale of 1-5
Child Welfare System Relevance Level:
Medium
See descriptions of 3 levels

About This Program

The information in this program outline is provided by the program representative and edited by the CEBC staff. Helping the Noncompliant Child (HNC) has been rated by the CEBC in the areas of: Disruptive Behavior Treatment (Child & Adolescent) and Parent Training Programs that Address Behavior Problems in Children and Adolescents.

Target Population: Parents of children (age 3-8 years old) who are noncompliant and have related disruptive behavior/conduct problems

For children/adolescents ages: 3 – 8

For parents/caregivers of children ages: 3 – 8

Brief Description

HNC is a skills-training program aimed at teaching parents how to obtain compliance in their children ages 3 to 8 years old. The goal is to improve parent-child interactions in order to reduce the escalation of problems into more serious disorders (e.g., conduct disorder, juvenile delinquency). The program is based on the theoretical assumption that noncompliance in children is a keystone behavior for the development of conduct problems; and that faulty parent-child interactions play a significant part in the development and maintenance of these problems.

Parents attend sessions with their children and trainers teach the parents core skills necessary for improving parent-child interactions and increasing their children’s compliance.

Program Goals:

The goals of Helping the Noncompliant Child (HNC) are:

  • Establish a positive interaction with the child by reducing/eliminating parental coercive behaviors and providing positive attention to the child for appropriate behaviors (and ignoring minor child inappropriate behaviors that are primarily attention-seeking)
  • Provide appropriate limit setting and consequences for both child compliance and noncompliance to parental directives, which should ultimately lead to reduced:
    • Oppositional defiant disorder and conduct disorder diagnoses
    • Engagement in delinquent behavior
    • Risk of substance use problems
    • Child maltreatment

Essential Components

The essential components of Helping the Noncompliant Child (HNC) include:

  • Population/Participants
    • Excessive child noncompliance
    • Child age from 3 to 8 years
    • Sessions typically with individual families rather than in groups (although HNC has been adapted for use in groups of 10-15 parents)
    • Individual family sessions with the parent(s) (both mothers and fathers – or other primary care givers, whenever possible) and the child
    • Child in all treatment sessions
  • Program
    • Involves a series of parenting skills to increase positive attention for appropriate child behavior (e.g., attends, rewards), to ignore minor inappropriate behaviors, to provide clear instructions to the child, and to provide appropriate consequences for compliance (e.g., positive attention) and noncompliance (e.g., time out, standing rules)
    • Parenting skills taught using active teaching methods, such as extensive demonstration, role plays, and direct practice with the child in the training setting and at home
    • Progression from one skill to the next is based upon demonstrated proficiency by the parent (i.e., competency-based)
    • HNC consists of two phases:
      • Differential Attention (Phase I):
        • Parents learn to:
          • Increase the frequency and range of social attention to the child (attends, rewards)
          • Ignore minor inappropriate behaviors
          • Reduce the frequency of competing verbal behavior
        • Major goal: Break out of the coercive cycle by establishing a positive, mutually reinforcing relationship between the parent and child.
      • Compliance Training (Phase II):
        • Parents learn to:
          • Use the Clear Instructions Sequence to provide direct, concise instructions to the child
          • Allow the child sufficient time to comply
          • Provide appropriate consequences for compliance (e.g., positive attention) or noncompliance (e.g., time out)
          • Use standing rules to supplement the Clear Instructions Sequence
          • Implement the parenting skills in situations outside the home (e.g., riding in the car, shopping, visiting others)

Child/Adolescent Services

Helping the Noncompliant Child (HNC) directly provides services to children/adolescents and addresses the following:

  • Excessive noncompliance and other conduct problems

Parent/Caregiver Services

Helping the Noncompliant Child (HNC) directly provides services to parents/caregivers and addresses the following:

  • Parent of a noncompliant child

Delivery Settings

This program is typically conducted in a(n):

  • Community Agency
  • Outpatient Clinic

Homework

Helping the Noncompliant Child (HNC) includes a homework component:

At the end of each session, parents receive a handout and record sheet pertaining to the session content. In the first phase of the program, parents practice skills daily in the context of a 10-15 minute session of the Child's Game, in which the parent and child engage in a play activity chosen by the child. In addition, parents learn to apply differential attention skills to relevant child behaviors. In Phase II, parents are given specific tasks concerned with giving clear instructions to their child, providing positive attention for compliance, and time out for noncompliance. Parents also practice setting up and explaining standing rules to their child, and applying the parenting skills to situations outside the home and to other children in the family.

Languages

Helping the Noncompliant Child (HNC) has materials available in a language other than English:

Spanish

For information on which materials are available in this language, please check on the program's website or contact the program representative (contact information is listed at the bottom of this page).

Resources Needed to Run Program

The typical resources for implementing the program are:

  • A playroom-type of room that is large enough for the trainer, 1-2 parents, and the child: Room should be large enough so that there is room for the child to play with toys separately from where the parents and trainer are sitting
  • Age-appropriate toys required

Minimum Provider Qualifications

Practitioners should have a background in psychology or education, a Master's level degree in some aspect of human services, and should be familiar with social learning principles and their application to child behavior. Ideally, the trainer would have experience working with young (3-8 year-old) children with conduct problems and their parents.

Supervisors should have at least a Master's degree and prior experience implementing and/or supervising social learning-based parent management programs with young children. Ideally, they should have experience providing the HNC program themselves.

Education and Training Resources

There is a manual that describes how to implement this program, and there is training available for this program.

Training Contact:
  • Robert J. McMahon, PhD
    Simon Fraser University
    dept.: Department of Psychology

    phone: (778) 782-9031
Training is obtained:

Training is typically provided onsite at the contracting agency.

Number of days/hours:

Trainees are required to read and study the trainer's manual prior to the training. This will take approximately 8 hours). Initial training is conducted in two consecutive 8-hour days. This is followed by a series of one-day (8 hours) booster trainings and regular consultation phone calls (60-90 minutes each).

Additional Resources:

There currently are additional qualified resources for training:

  • Nick Long, PhD
    Department of Pediatrics
    University of Arkansas for Medical Sciences
    phone: 501-364-1021
    email: LongNicholas@uams.edu

Implementation Information

Since Helping the Noncompliant Child (HNC) is rated on the Scientific Rating Scale, information was requested from the program representative on available pre-implementation assessments, implementation tools, and/or fidelity measures.

Show implementation information...

Pre-Implementation Materials

There are no pre-implementation materials to measure organizational or provider readiness for Helping the Noncompliant Child (HNC).

Formal Support for Implementation

There is formal support available for implementation of Helping the Noncompliant Child (HNC) as listed below:

Technical support, formal coaching, and consultation are provided as needed.

Fidelity Measures

There are fidelity measures for Helping the Noncompliant Child (HNC) as listed below:

There are fidelity measures available for each session of HNC that are comprised of a checklist of the key content and process issues for that session. The checklists can be completed by the therapist or by a supervisor or someone else who observes the session. They are available by request from the program contact listed at the end of this entry.

Implementation Guides or Manuals

There are no implementation guides or manuals for Helping the Noncompliant Child (HNC).

Research on How to Implement the Program

Research has been conducted on how to implement Helping the Noncompliant Child (HNC) as listed below:

Honeycutt, A. A., Khavjou, O. A., Jones, D. J., Cuellar, J., & Forehand, R. L. (2015). Helping the Noncompliant Child: an assessment of program costs and cost-effectiveness. Journal of Child and Family Studies, 24(2), 499-504. doi:10.1007/s10826-013-9862-7

Jones, D. J., Forehand, R. L., Cuellar, J., Parent, J., & Honeycutt, A. A. (2014). Technology-enhanced program for child disruptive behavior disorders: Development and pilot randomized control trial. Journal of Clinical Child and Adolescent Psychology, 43, 88-101. doi: 10.1080/15374416.2013.822308

McMahon, R. J., Forehand, R., & Griest, D. L. (1981). Effects of knowledge of social learning principles on enhancing treatment outcome and generalization in a parent training program. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 49, 526-532.

Wells, K. C., Griest, D. L., & Forehand, R. (1980). The use of a self-control package to enhance temporal generality of a parent training program. Behaviour Research and Therapy, 18, 347-358.

Yu, J., Roberts, M., Wong, M., & Shen, Y. (2011). Acceptability of behavioral family therapy among caregivers in China. Journal of Child and Family Studies, 20, 272-278.

Relevant Published, Peer-Reviewed Research

This program is rated a "3 - Promising Research Evidence" on the Scientific Rating Scale based on the published, peer-reviewed research available. The practice must have at least one study utilizing some form of control (e.g., untreated group, placebo group, matched wait list study) establishing the practice's benefit over the placebo, or found it to be comparable to or better than an appropriate comparison practice. Please see the Scientific Rating Scale for more information.

Child Welfare Outcome: Child/Family Well-Being

Show relevant research...

Forehand, R., Wells, K. C., & Griest, D. L. (1980). An examination of the social validity of a parent training program. Behavior Therapy, 11, 488-502. doi:10.1016/S0005-7894(80)80065-7 

Type of Study: Pretest-posttest with nonmatched comparison group
Number of Participants: 30 mother-child pairs

Population:

  • Age — Children: Mean=58.4-63.9 months, Adults: Not specified
  • Race/Ethnicity — Children: Not specified, Parents: Not specified
  • Gender — Children: Not specified, Adults: 100% Female
  • Status — Participants were self-referred by parent, referred by professionals in the community, or recruited through the media.

Location/Institution: Georgia

Summary: (To include comparison groups, outcomes, measures, notable limitations)
The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness of a parent training program [now called Helping the Noncompliant Child (HNC)]. Measures utilized include the Parent’s Attitude Test and the Beck Depression Inventory (BDI). Results indicate that at posttest, mothers in the treated group reported significant improvement in their children’s behavior, although they still perceived them as less well-adjusted than did mothers in the comparison group. Improvements were maintained at the two-month follow-up. Limitations include lack of randomization of participants, lack of long-term follow-up and attrition of parents from the posttest period.

Length of postintervention follow-up: 2 months.

Wells, K. C., Forehand, R., & Griest, D. L. (1980). Generality of treatment effects from treated to untreated behaviors resulting from a parent training program. Journal of Clinical Child Psychology, 9(3), 217-219. doi:10.1080/15374418009532993 

Type of Study: Children: Not specified, Adults: 100% Female
Number of Participants: 24 mother-child pairs

Population:

  • Age — Children: Mean=59.7-60.3 months, Adults: Not specified
  • Race/Ethnicity — Children: Not specified, Parents: Not specified
  • Gender — Children: Not specified, Adults: 100% Female
  • Status — Participants were children being treated at the University of Georgia Psychology Clinic for behavior problems.

Location/Institution: University of Georgia

Summary: (To include comparison groups, outcomes, measures, notable limitations)
The purpose of the present study was to examine the generalization of treatment effects from treated to untreated behaviors in the Hanf Parent Training Program [now called Helping the Noncompliant Child (HNC)]. The measure utilized was a coding system developed by the authors focusing on compliance, non-compliance, and deviant behavior. Results indicate found that the treated children significantly increased their compliant behavior to a comparable level to the untreated group following the parent training. This improvement generalized to behaviors not directly addressed by treatment. Limitations include small sample size, lack of long-term follow-up, and use of a nonrandomized design.

Length of postintervention follow-up: None.

Breiner, J., & Forehand, R. (1981). An assessment of the effects of parent training on clinic-referred children’s school behavior. Behavioral Assessment, 3, 31-42.

Type of Study: Pretest/Posttest with a non-matched comparison group.
Number of Participants: 32 adult-child pairs

Population:

  • Age — Children: Mean=67 months, Adults: Not specified
  • Race/Ethnicity — Children: Not specified, Adults: Not specified
  • Gender — Children: Not specified, Adults: Not specified
  • Status — Participants were clients of the University of Georgia Psychology clinic and their classmates.

Location/Institution: Georgia

Summary: (To include comparison groups, outcomes, measures, notable limitations)
The purpose of the present study was to examine the efficacy of the Hanf Parent Training Program [now called Helping the Noncompliant Child (HNC)]. The measure utilized was a coding system developed by the authors, with attention to rewards, parent attention, commands, time-outs, oppositional behavior, and compliance. Results indicated an improvement in treated children’s behavior at home, but not in the classroom. The authors note that the clinic group did not appear to differ from the comparison group in classroom behavior even before treatment. Limitations include nonrandomization of participants, small sample size, and lack of follow-up.

Length of postintervention follow-up: None.

Griest, D. L., Forehand, R., Rogers, T., Breiner, J., Furey, W., & Williams, C. A. (1982). Effects of parent enhancement therapy on the treatment outcome and generalization of a parent training program. Behaviour Research and Therapy, 20(5), 429-436. doi:10.1016/0005-7967(82)90064-X 

Type of Study: Pretest-posttest with nonrandomized comparison group
Number of Participants: 32 mother-child pairs

Population:

  • Age — Children: Mean=59 months, Adults: Not specified
  • Race/Ethnicity — Children: Not specified, Parents: Not specified
  • Gender — Children: Not specified, Adults: 100% Female
  • Status — Participants were mothers and children referred to the University of Georgia Psychological clinic for behavior problems, or by newspaper announcements.

Location/Institution: University of Georgia

Summary: (To include comparison groups, outcomes, measures, notable limitations)
The purpose of this study was to examine the effectiveness of parent enhancement training in facilitating treatment and maintenance of the Hanf Parent Training Program [now called Helping the Noncompliant Child (HNC)]. Participants were assigned to either Parent Training Alone (PTA) or Parent Training plus Parent Enhancement Training (PTE). Measures utilized include the Parent Attitude Test, the Beck Depression Inventory, the Locke Wallace Marital Inventory Test, and the Community Interaction Checklist. Results indicated that enhanced parent training was more effective than parent training alone and also superior to the no-treatment comparison group. Limitations included small sample size, low inter-rater reliability on treatment outcome variables, and lack of follow-up.

Length of postintervention follow-up: None.

Forehand, R., & Long, N. (1988). Outpatient treatment of the acting out child: Procedures, long term follow-up data, and clinical problems. Advances in Behaviour Research and Therapy, 10, 129-177. doi:10.1016/0146-6402(88)90012-4 

Type of Study: Posttreatment follow-up with nonmatched comparison group.
Number of Participants: 42

Population:

  • Age — Children: 11-14 years at follow-up, Adults: Not specified
  • Race/Ethnicity — Children: Not specified, Adults: Not specified
  • Gender — Children: Not specified, Adults: 100% Female
  • Status — Participants were parents and children who had previously participated in a training program.

Location/Institution: Not specified

Summary: (To include comparison groups, outcomes, measures, notable limitations)
This study utilized information from Griest et al. (1982) to report on the effectiveness of the Hanf Parent Training Program [now called Helping the Noncompliant Child (HNC)] approximately 4 ½ years after the program. The participants were parent and child pairs who had previously participated in a training program aimed at alleviating problems with compliance and aggression. Measures utilized include the Revised Problem Behavior Checklist (RPBC), the Issues Checklist (IC), the Conflict Behavior Questionnaire (CBQ), the Children’s Depression Inventory (CDI), the Perceived Competence Scale for Children (PCSC), the Rating Scale of Child’s Actual Competence (RSCAC), the Parent Competency Inventory (PCI), the Beck Depression Inventory (BDI), the Dyadic Adjustment Scale (DAS), and the O’Leary Porter Scale (OPS). Results showed the adolescents in the Parent Training group were functioning similarly to those in the comparison group. Higher scores were found for conflict behavior, according to parent ratings and for anxiety, according to teacher ratings. Children in the Parent Training group were also found to have more academic performance difficulties. Limitations of the study include a high attrition rate and lack of a matched comparison group.

Length of postintervention follow-up: Approximately 4 and one-half years.

Wells, K.C., & Egan, J. (1988). Social learning and systems family therapy for childhood oppositional disorder: Comparative treatment outcome. Comprehensive Psychiatry, 29(2), 138-146. doi:10.1016/0010-440X(88)90006-5 

Type of Study: Randomized controlled trial
Number of Participants: 19 families

Population:

  • Age — Children: 3-8 years, Adults: Not specified
  • Race/Ethnicity — Children: Not specified, Adults: Not specified
  • Gender — Children: Not specified, Adults: Not specified
  • Status — Participants were children referred to an outpatient clinic and diagnosed for Oppositional Disorder.

Location/Institution: Not Specified

Summary: (To include comparison groups, outcomes, measures, notable limitations)
This study evaluated the comparative effectiveness of a social learning-based parent training (SLPT) program, Hanf Parent Training Program [now called Helping the Noncompliant Child (HNC)] or Systems Family Therapy (SFT). Participants were randomized to either SLPT or SFT. Measures utilized include the Beck Depression Inventory (BDI) and the Locke Wallace Marriage Inventory. Results indicate that participants in the SLPT group showed higher improvement on the symptoms of oppositional disorder and parenting behaviors. Limitations include the small sample size, lack of untreated control group, and lack of follow-up.

Length of postintervention follow-up: None.

Long, P., Forehand, R., Wierson, M., & Morgan, A. (1994). Does parent training with young noncompliant children have long-term effects? Behaviour Research and Therapy, 32(1), 101-107. doi:10.1016/0005-7967(94)90088-4 

Type of Study: Posttest with long-term follow-up and matched comparison group
Number of Participants: 26

Population:

  • Age — Children: 2-7 years at time of treatment, Adults: Not specified
  • Race/Ethnicity — Children: Not specified, Adults: Not specified
  • Gender — Children: 17 Males and 9 Females, Adults: 100% Female
  • Status — Participants in a training program for parents with noncompliant children.

Location/Institution: Not specified

Summary: (To include comparison groups, outcomes, measures, notable limitations)
This study current study is a long-term follow-up of Griest et al. (1982). The participants along with their mothers were involved in the Hanf Parent Training Program [now called Helping the Noncompliant Child (HNC)] when they were young non-compliant children. Young adults who had participated as children in a parent-training program were compared to a sample of youth from the community. Measures included the Conflict Behavior Questionnaire, the National Youth Survey, the Michigan Alcohol Screening Test (MAST), the Rosenberg Self Esteem Scale, and the Brief Symptom Inventory. Results showed that the treated group did not differ from the community sample on relationship with parents, delinquency, substance use, or emotional adjustment (self-esteem) scores. Limitations include, lack of untreated control group, and reliance on self-reported measures.

Length of postintervention follow-up: Approximately 14 years.

Jones , D. J., Forehand, R. L., Cuellar, J., Parent, J., & Honeycutt, A. A. (2014). Technology-enhanced program for child disruptive behavior disorders: Development and pilot randomized control trial. Journal of Clinical Child and Adolescent Psychology, 43, 88-101. doi:10.1080/15374416.2013.822308

Type of Study: Randomized controlled trial
Number of Participants: 37

Population:

  • Age — Children: 3-8 years, Adults: Mean=36.73- 38.25
  • Race/Ethnicity — Children: Not specified, Adults: Not specified
  • Gender — Children: 53% Male; Adults: 87% Female
  • Status — Participants were parents of children with disruptive behaviors.

Location/Institution: North Carolina

Summary: (To include comparison groups, outcomes, measures, notable limitations)
This project aimed to develop and pilot test a technology-enhanced version of Helping the Noncompliant Child (HNC) by increasing engagement of low-income families and, in turn, child behavior outcomes, with potential cost-savings associated with greater treatment efficiency. Families of children with clinically significant disruptive behaviors were randomized to and completed standard HNC or Technology-Enhanced HNC. All families received the standard HNC program; however, TE-HNC also included the following smartphone enhancements: (a) skills video series, (b) brief daily surveys, (c) text message reminders, (d) video recording home practice, and (e) midweek video calls. Measures utilized include the Eyberg Child Behavior Inventory (ECBI), the Attends Survey, and the Consumer Satisfaction Scale. Results indicate TE-HNC yielded larger effect sizes than HNC for all engagement outcomes. Both groups yielded clinically significant improvements in disruptive behavior; however, findings suggest that the greater program engagement associated with TE-HNC boosted child treatment outcome. Limitations include small sample size, concerns of privacy and security and lack of follow-up.

Length of postintervention follow-up: None.

Abikoff , H. B., Thompson, M. J., Laver-Bradbury, C., Long, N., Forehand, R. L., Brotman, L. M., … Sonuga-Barke, E. (2015). Parent training for preschool ADHD: A randomized controlled trial of specialized and generic programs. Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry, 56(6), 618-631. doi:10.1111/jcpp.12346

Type of Study: Randomized controlled trial
Number of Participants: 164

Population:

  • Age — Children: 3-4 years, Parents: Mean=36.73- 38.25
  • Race/Ethnicity — 69.2% Caucasian, 16.4% African American, 8.8% Asian, 5.6% other; 25.6% Hispanic
  • Gender — Children: 73.8% Male; Parents: 87% Female
  • Status — Participants were parents of children with disruptive behaviors.

Location/Institution: New York University (NYU) Langone Medical Center

Summary: (To include comparison groups, outcomes, measures, notable limitations)
The aims of this study are to evaluate the short- and long-term efficacy and generalization effects of New Forest Parenting Package (NFPP) compared to Helping the Noncompliant Child (HNC) in young children with ADHD. Participants were randomized into, NFPP, HNC, or a wait-list control group. Measures utilized include the Wechsler Preschool Primary Scale of Intelligence, 3rd edition (WPPSI-III), the Revised Conners Teacher and Parent Rating Scales (CTRS-R and CPRS-R), the Diagnostic Interview Schedule for Children-Parent Report Version 4 modified Young Child Version (DISC-IV-YC), the Clinical Evaluation of Language Fundamentals (CELF-2), the New York Teacher and Parent Rating Scales (NYTRS), the Parenting Practice Interview (PPI), the Global Impressions of Parent–Child Interactions–Revised (GIPCI–R), Parenting Stress Index-Short Form Revised (PSI-R), and the Consumer Satisfaction Questionnaire (CSQ). Results indicate in both treatment groups, children’s ADHD and ODD behaviors, as well as aspects of parenting, were rated improved by parents at the end of treatment compared to controls. Most of these gains in the children’s behavior and in some parenting practices were sustained at follow-up. However, these parent-reported improvements were not corroborated by teacher ratings or objective observations. NFPP was not significantly better, and on a few outcomes significantly less effective, than HNC. Limitations include lack of control group during follow-up, generalizability due to education level of parents, and the brief period of treatment for NFPP.

Length of postintervention follow-up: 6.8 months (intervention only).

Forehand , R., Parent, J., Sonuga-Barke, E., Peisch, V. D., Long, N., & Abikoff, H. B. (2016). Which type of parent training works best for preschoolers with comorbid ADHD and ODD? A secondary analysis of a randomized controlled trial comparing generic and specialized programs. Journal of Abnormal Child Psychology. Advance online publication. doi:10.1007/s10802-016-0138-8

Type of Study: Randomized controlled trial (secondary analysis)
Number of Participants: 130

Population:

  • Age — Children: 3-4 years; Parents: Mean=36.73- 38.25
  • Race/Ethnicity — Children: 68.3% White, 14.6% Black, 9.8% Asian, 7.3% other; 26.9% Hispanic; Parents: Not specified
  • Gender — Children: 74.6% Male; Parents: Not specified
  • Status — Participants were parents of children with disruptive behaviors.

Location/Institution: New York University (NYU) Langone Medical Center

Summary: (To include comparison groups, outcomes, measures, notable limitations)
The present study utilized information from Abikoff et al. (2015) to determine whether the presence of comorbid oppositional defiant disorder (ODD) differentially moderated the outcome of two behavioral parent training (BPT) programs in a sample of preschoolers with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD): One designed specifically for ADHD: New Forest Parenting Programme (NFPP) and one designed primarily for ODD: Helping the Noncompliant Child (HNC). Participants were randomized into NFPP, HNC, or a wait-list control group. Measures utilized include the Wechsler Preschool Primary Scale of Intelligence, 3rd edition (WPPSI-III), the Revised Conners Teacher and Parent Rating Scales (CTRS-R and CPRS-R), the Diagnostic Interview Schedule for Children-Parent Report Version 4 modified Young Child Version (DISC-IV-YC), the Clinical Evaluation of Language Fundamentals (CELF-2), the New York Teacher and Parent Rating Scales (NYTRS), the Parenting Practice Interview (PPI), the Global Impressions of Parent–Child Interactions–Revised (GIPCI–R), Parenting Stress Index-Short Form Revised (PSI-R), and the Consumer Satisfaction Questionnaire (CSQ). Results indicate significant interactions between treatment conditions (NFPP vs. HNC) and child ODD diagnosis (presence vs. absence) indicated that based on some parent and teacher reports, HNC was more effective with disruptive behaviors than NFPP but only when children had a comorbid diagnosis. Further, based on teacher report, NFPP was more effective with these behaviors when children had a diagnosis of only ADHD whereas HNC was equally effective across ADHD only and comorbid ODD diagnoses. Limitations include lack of control group during follow-up and generalizability due to education level of parents.

Length of postintervention follow-up: 6.8 months (intervention only).

References

Forehand, R., & Long, N. (2010). Parenting the strong-willed child (3rd ed.). New York: McGraw-Hill.

Long, N., & Forehand, R. (2010). Parenting the strong-willed child: Leader’s guide for the six-week parenting class. (Contact Nicholas Long, LongNicholas@uams.edu)

McMahon, R. J., & Forehand, R. (2003). Helping the noncompliant child: Family-based treatment for oppositional behavior (2nd ed.). New York: Guilford Press.

Contact Information

Name: Robert J. McMahon, PhD
Agency/Affiliation: Simon Fraser University
Department: Department of Psychology
Email:
Phone: (778) 782-9031
Fax: (778) 782-3427

Date Research Evidence Last Reviewed by CEBC: August 2016

Date Program Content Last Reviewed by Program Staff: March 2016

Date Program Originally Loaded onto CEBC: May 2009