Transition to Independence Process (TIP) Model

Scientific Rating:
Promising Research Evidence
See scale of 1-5

Additional Implementation Resources

Since this program Transition to Independence Process (TIP) Model was highly rated on the Scientific Rating Scale, program representatives were asked to provide additional implementation information.

Pre-Implementation Materials

There are pre-implementation materials to measure organizational or provider readiness for Transition to Independence Process (TIP) Model as listed below:

Agency and collaborative leadership who are considering implementing the TIP Model need to address, up front, many critical factors that will have a significant impact on the eventual success or failure of implementing the TIP Model. To help assess an agency’s and/or the collaborative’s readiness to implement the program, TIP Model Consultants utilize various planning and readiness tools. One tool is the Hexagon Tool for Assessing Readiness/Progress (adapted from the National Implementation Research Network [NIRN]). The Hexagon Tool assists providers, agency managers, and other relevant stakeholders in assessing an agency’s or collaborative’s capacity, need, resources, and “fit” in relation to the TIP Model and provides a framework for discussions and planning for implementation considerations.

Other tools include:

  • Site Readiness for TIP Model Implementation
  • TIP Implementation Site-Assessment Organizational Action Planning
  • TIP Model Implementation Planning for Next Steps

Formal Support for Implementation

There is formal support available for implementation of Transition to Independence Process (TIP) Model as listed below:

The TIP Model Consultants collaborate with an agency or a community coalition of agencies to maximize implementation and sustainability.

  • The Consultants provide competency-based training through TIP Model Cross-Site Forums and technical assistance to agencies in communities, counties, and regions. The Transition Facilitators (TFs), other frontline team personnel, and the supervisors at transition sites are taught and coached in the application of the TIP Model Guidelines and Core Practices (e.g., In-vivo Teaching, SODAS Problem Solving, Prevention Planning on High Risk Behaviors & Situations).
  • The TIP Model Consultants and Assessors also assist sites with sustainability through technical assistance and mentoring on processes and building site capacity on topics such as:
    • Establishing peer support and peer leadership
    • Conducting TIP Solutions Review sessions for ongoing competency enhancement of all transition personnel
    • Mentoring supervisory personnel in coaching methods for working more effectively with their transition team
    • Providing technical assistance on tracking of progress and outcome indicators for youth and young adults (e.g., TAPIS Progress Tracker & Goal Achiever)
    • Establishing TIP Model Site-Based Trainers through mentoring and certification
    • Conducting TIP Model Fidelity Quality Improvement Assessments and building site capacity through mentoring and certifying Regional Fidelity QI Assessors
    • Accreditation of sites based on meeting TIP Model fidelity standards

The following chapter describes the implementation process, using a region in Canada as a site example.

Clark, H. B, Jaouich, A., & Baker, K. (2015). The Transition to Independence Process: Implementation of the TIP Model for improving the outcomes of youth and young adults with emotional/behavioral difficulties. In B. G. Cook, M. Tankersley, & T. J. Landrum (Eds.), Transition of youth and young adults: Advances in learning and behavioural disabilities (Vol. 28, pp. 135–171). Emerald Group Publishing Limited.

Fidelity Measures

There are fidelity measures for Transition to Independence Process (TIP) Model as listed below:

The TIP Model Fidelity QI Assessment is used for: a) providing ongoing quality improvement to a Transition Team; b) tracking TIP Model implementation and sustainability; and c) providing the basis for being accredited as a TIP Model Site. A complete Fidelity QI Assessment typically takes 2 days with a Transition Team and is composed of the following four Tools.

  • Fidelity QI TF Interviews on TIP Model Practice Implementation – The purpose of the TF Interviews is to understand the extent to which the TFs are:
    • Knowledgeable of the young people they are serving
    • Applying the principles and practices of the TIP Model with integrity
    • Documenting their practice activities in ways that illustrate its relevance to working effectively with the young people and making it likely that the service episodes are billable
  • Fidelity QI Young Person Focus Group -- The Focus Group typically involves four to six youth and young adults. The purpose of this Focus Group with young people is to assess the extent to which:
    • The TIP Model Guidelines and Core Practices are reaching the young people being served in this Transition Program
    • The young people find the transition system to be helpful, relevant, and impactful in their lives and futures
  • Fidelity QI Survey on TIP Model Organizational Implementation – The Organizational Survey/Interview examines the extent to which TIP Model organizational features are present in the transition system and the organizational and community structure around it. This Tool provides implementation ratings across categories such as accessibility of services, continuity of services and supports, staff management/supervision, tracking of the progress of the young people, organizational commitment, and sustainability.
  • Fidelity QI TIP Solutions Review (TSR) Online Survey -- The TIP Solutions Review (TSR) process is to provide a Transition Team an opportunity to collaboratively problem-solve ways to improve its Team’s effectiveness in working with young people, their natural supports, and other formal key players. The TIP Model fidelity requires that the entire Transition Team review at least two young people in-depth each month using the YP Descriptive Outline form. Fidelity to this process is assessed by the TSR Survey, which is an online SurveyMonkey to assess the extent to which the Transition Team is: a) applying the TSR process; and b) the Team Members are benefiting from it for improving their work with their young people.

TIP Model Assessors also work with sites to assist the leadership so that they are utilizing other relevant qualitative and quantitative data as part of their continuing quality improvement effort. For example:

  • Service/support utilization data that illustrate the application of supports and services to facilitate a young person’s progress across relevant Transition Domains.
  • Survey on the “helpfulness of supports & services” from the perspective of young people. (Satisfaction surveys can also be conducted from parents’ perspectives or the perspectives of other supportive key players in the lives of the young people).
  • Progress on the young person’s own goals (e.g., TIP Model Futures Planning; aka TAPIS Goal Achiever in an electronic version).
  • Tracking of progress and outcomes across the Transition Domains (e.g., TAPIS Progress Tracker).

Some sites are interested in establishing capacity for ongoing TIP Model quality improvement. A process has been developed by which a Certified TIP Model Fidelity QI Assessor can conduct a Fidelity QI Assessment on a Transition Team and concurrently mentor up to two Assessor Candidates from the region to learn this assessment process. It typically requires two or three pairing with a Candidate for him/her to be signed off where he/she can then apply to the TIP Model Board for certification.

Implementation Guides or Manuals

There are implementation guides or manuals for Transition to Independence Process (TIP) Model as listed below:

The faculty and Consultants of the Stars Training Academy and NNYT have created numerous implementation materials and guides. Listed below are a few of the implementation guides that Consultants use with sites as relevant to their needs and progression with implementation and sustainability:

  • Supervisory Methods for Personnel Coaching
  • Supervisory Field-Based Coaching Form
  • TIP Tool Kits
  • TIP Solutions Review Monitoring and Mentoring Checklist
  • TIP Model Implementation Planning for Next Steps

Research on How to Implement the Program

Research has been conducted on how to implement Transition to Independence Process (TIP) Model as listed below:

  • Dresser, K., Clark, H. B., & Deschênes, N. (2015). Implementation of a positive development, evidence-supported practice for emerging adults with serious mental health conditions: The Transition to Independence Process (TIP) Model. The Journal of Behavioral Health Services & Research, 42(2), 223–237.
  • Klodnick, V. V., Clark, H. B. “R.”, Johnson, R. P., & Fagan, M. A. (2018). Developing quality assurance practices and measures for implementing and sustaining the Transition to Independence Process (TIP) Model. Psychiatric Rehabilitation Journal, 42(1), 71–78.