Arkansas Center for Addictions Research, Education, and Services (Arkansas CARES)

Note: The Arkansas CARES program was not responsive to the CEBC's inquiry. The following information was obtained from publicly available sources.

About This Program

Target Population: Mothers with dual diagnosis of substance abuse and mental health problems

Program Overview

Arkansas CARES provides services to mothers with dual diagnosis of substance abuse and mental health problems. Treatment is primarily provided in a long-term residential setting with family support and treatment services based on the Teaching-Family Model. Mothers are referred either when they are pregnant or enter treatment with their children. Additional services include maternal and child health care, parent training, vocational and educational training, and children's mental health and early education services.

Logic Model

The program representative did not provide information about a Logic Model for Arkansas Center for Addictions Research, Education, and Services (Arkansas CARES).

Manuals and Training

Publicly available information indicates there is some training available for this program.
See contact info below.

Training Contact:
  • Linda L. M. Worley, MD
    University of Arkansas for Medical Sciences, College of Medicine, Departments of Psychiatry and Behavioral Sciences and Obstetrics and Gynecology

Relevant Published, Peer-Reviewed Research

Child Welfare Outcome: Child/Family Well-Being

Whiteside-Mansell, L., Crone, C., & Conners, N. (1999). The development and evaluation of an alcohol and drug prevention and treatment program for women and children. Journal of Substance Abuse Treatment, 16(3), 265-275.

Type of Study: Nonrandomized comparison group
Number of Participants: 95


  • Age — Participating: Mean=28.8 years, Nonparticipating: Mean=26.3 years
  • Race/Ethnicity — Participating: 75% African American, Nonparticipating: 70% African American
  • Gender — 100% Female
  • Status — Participants were women who volunteered for or were referred for Arkansas CARES services or who refused services (comparison group).

Location/Institution: Arkansas

Summary: (To include basic study design, measures, results, and notable limitations)
The study compared women and children participating in the Arkansas CARES program with those who had refused service. Women's reported drug use was assessed at intake and between intake and delivery of the target child. Alcohol use in the Arkansas CARES group dropped from 83.6% at intake to 4% at delivery. Use in the non-participating group dropped from 90.5% to 33%. Similar levels were reported for other types of drug use. The study also examined birth outcomes. Fewer participating women experience premature labor or maternal infection and their hospital stays were shorter. Longer program participation was associated with higher birth weight. This study could not compare child developmental outcomes across groups, but all children in the participating group score in normal health ranges at 12 and 18 months, as assessed by Bayley Scales of Infant Development. Limitations include lack of random assignment and lack of comparison data for children's follow-up.

Length of postintervention follow-up: 18 months after delivery of target child.

Conners, N. A., Bradley, R. H., Whiteside-Mansell, L., & Crone, C. C. (2001). A comprehensive substance abuse treatment program for women and their children: An initial evaluation. Journal of Substance Abuse Treatment, 21(2), 67–75.

Type of Study: Nonrandomized comparison groups
Number of Participants: 72


  • Age — 16-44 years
  • Race/Ethnicity — All Groups: Majority African American, Late Dropout Group: 42% Caucasian, Early Dropout Group: 21.4% Caucasian, Graduate Group: 13.3% Caucasian
  • Gender — Female
  • Status — Participants were women in a residential substance abuse treatment for women with children.

Location/Institution: Arkansas

Summary: (To include basic study design, measures, results, and notable limitations)
This study compares outcomes for women and children across three treatment (Arkansas CARES) groups: clients who stayed in treatment less than 30 days (early drop-out), those who stayed in more than 30 days but did not complete treatment (late drop-out), and those who completed the program (graduates). Assessments were taken at baseline, every three months after intake, and at 3, 6, and 12 months after discharge. Mothers were assessed with the Addiction Severity Index, the Parenting Stress Index, the Outcomes of Addiction Questionnaire, and the Family Cohesiveness Scale. Children were assessed with the Scales of Independent Behavior-Revised (SIB-R) and the Denver Developmental Screening Test. The authors also administered a scale designed for this project to measure ability to resist using drugs. Analysis showed that 15% of the graduate group experienced a relapse during follow-up, compared to 50% of early drop-outs and 61% of late dropouts. The groups did not differ on number of days of substance use. There were no group differences in self-reported negative consequences of substance use. In addition, few graduates had poverty level incomes or arrests. They also improved more on parenting stress scores and family cohesion. No significant group differences were found in children's behavior or drug resistance skills scores. Study limitations include very small group sizes, lack of randomized design and lack of an untreated comparison group.

Length of postintervention follow-up: 12 months after discharge.

Additional References

Worley, L. L. M., Conners, N. A., Crone, C. C., Williams, V. L., & Bokony, P. A. (2005). Building a residential treatment program for dually diagnosed women with their children. Archives of Women's Mental Health, 8, 105-111.

Contact Information

Kate Hardage
Agency/Affiliation: Arkansas Cares

Date Research Evidence Last Reviewed by CEBC: February 2021

Date Program Content Last Reviewed by Program Staff: June 2009

Date Program Originally Loaded onto CEBC: June 2009