Coping Cat

About This Program

Target Population: Children experiencing problematic levels of anxiety

For children/adolescents ages: 7 – 13

For parents/caregivers of children ages: 7 – 13

Program Overview

Coping Cat is a cognitive-behavioral treatment for children with anxiety. The program incorporates 4 components:

  • Recognizing and understanding emotional and physical reactions to anxiety
  • Clarifying thoughts and feelings in anxious situations
  • Developing plans for effective coping
  • Evaluating performance and giving self-reinforcement

Coping Cat also has a version for adolescents, ages 14-17, known as the C.A.T. Project which is highlighted on the CEBC as well.

Program Goals

The overall goal of Coping Cat is:

  • Reduce anxiety

Logic Model

The program representative did not provide information about a Logic Model for Coping Cat.

Essential Components

The essential components of the Coping Cat program include:

  • Psychoeducation, involving information for children and families about how anxiety can develop and be maintained, and how it can be treated
  • Exposure tasks, which give the child the chance to be in the feared situation and have a mastery experience
  • Somatic management, which teaches relaxation techniques
  • Cognitive restructuring which addresses FEAR: Feeling frightened, expecting bad things, attitudes and actions that will help, and results and rewards
  • Problem solving to generate and evaluate specific actions for dealing with problems
  • For group sessions, 4-5 participants per group is recommended

Program Delivery

Child/Adolescent Services

Coping Cat directly provides services to children/adolescents and addresses the following:

  • Anxiety

Parent/Caregiver Services

Coping Cat directly provides services to parents/caregivers and addresses the following:

  • Parents are involved in the child-focused (individual treatment) program, and meet in sessions 4 and 9, as well as in other sessions as needed for the exposure tasks. There is also a family (parents included) treatment section.

Recommended Intensity:

Weekly 50-minute sessions

Recommended Duration:

The typical implementation schedule is 16 weeks. The computer-assisted intervention, Camp Cope-a-Lot, is 12 sessions with less than half of the sessions requiring professional time.

Delivery Settings

This program is typically conducted in a(n):

  • Hospital
  • Community-based Agency / Organization / Provider
  • Group or Residential Care
  • School Setting (Including: Day Care, Day Treatment Programs, etc.)

Homework

Coping Cat includes a homework component:

One STIC task (where STIC stands for "Show That I Can") is assigned per week.

Languages

Coping Cat has materials available in languages other than English:

Chinese, Hungarian, Japanese, Norwegian, Spanish

For information on which materials are available in these languages, please check on the program's website or contact the program representative (contact information is listed at the bottom of this page).

Resources Needed to Run Program

The typical resources for implementing the program are:

  • Child workbook
  • Therapist manual
  • Office space
  • Access to an internet-connected computer if using the computer-assisted program

Manuals and Training

Prerequisite/Minimum Provider Qualifications

None have been set at this time.

Manual Information

There is a manual that describes how to deliver this program.

Training Information

There is training available for this program.

Training Contact:
Training Type/Location:

There are several training DVDs, including a computer-based training program (CBT4CBT) available at www.WorkbookPublishing.com

Number of days/hours:

The DVDs range in time from 40-90 minutes.

Implementation Information

Pre-Implementation Materials

There are no pre-implementation materials to measure organizational or provider readiness for Coping Cat.

Formal Support for Implementation

There is formal support available for implementation of Coping Cat as listed below:

Supervisory phone consultation is available.

Fidelity Measures

There are fidelity measures for Coping Cat as listed below:

The therapist manual describes session-by-session content. Each session's description begins with the goals/targets for that session. When checking on fidelity, tapes of sessions are listened to in order to check that the goals/targets for the session were addressed. Although they require a person familiar with the model, there are forms that can be used to assess fidelity when listening to the session. The fidelity form also has places for the supervisor to rate the therapist on several dimensions. The form is not publicly available.

Implementation Guides or Manuals

There are implementation guides or manuals for Coping Cat as listed below:

Therapist treatment manual is available. It can be purchased at www.WorkbookPublishing.com.

Research on How to Implement the Program

Research has been conducted on how to implement Coping Cat as listed below:

  • Podell, J. L., Kendall, P. C., Gosch, E. A., Compton, S. N., March, J. S., Albano, A.-M., Rynn, M. A., Walkup, J. T., Sherrill, J. T., Ginsburg, G. S., Keeton, C. P., Birmaher, B., & Piacentini, J. C. (2013). Therapist factors and outcomes in CBT for anxiety in youth. Professional Psychology: Research and Practice, 44(2), 89–98. https://doi.org/10.1037/a0031700
  • Schoenwald, S. K., Mehta, T. G., Frazier, S. L., & Shernoff, E. S. (2013). Clinical supervision in effectiveness and implementation research. Clinical Psychology: Science and Practice, 20(1), 44-59. https://doi.org/10.1111/cpsp.12022

Relevant Published, Peer-Reviewed Research

Child Welfare Outcome: Child/Family Well-Being

The CEBC reviews all of the articles that have been published in peer-reviewed journals as part of the rating process. When there are more than 10 published, peer-reviewed articles, the CEBC identifies the most relevant articles, with a focus on randomized controlled trials (RCTs) and controlled studies that have an impact on the rating. The articles chosen for Coping Cat are summarized below:

Kendall, P. C. (1994). Treating anxiety disorders in children: Results of a randomized clinical trial. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 62(1), 100-110. https://doi.org/10.1037/0022-006X.62.1.100

Type of Study: Randomized controlled trial
Number of Participants: 47

Population:

  • Age — 9-13 years
  • Race/Ethnicity — Treatment: 78% White and 22% African American, Control: 76% White
  • Gender — 60% Male
  • Status — Participants were children with anxiety disorders who were referred by community sources.

Location/Institution: Philadelphia, PA

Summary: (To include basic study design, measures, results, and notable limitations)
The purpose of the study was to investigate a psychosocial treatment for subjects with anxiety disorders. Children were randomly assigned to receive a cognitive-behavioral therapy [now called Coping Cat] or to a wait-list control group. Measures utilized include the Revised Children's Manifest Anxiety Scale (RCMAS), the State-Trait Anxiety Inventory for Children (STAIC), the Fear Survey Schedule for Children, the Children’s Depression Inventory (CDI), the Coping Questionnaire, the Child Behavior Checklist (CBCL), the State-Trait Anxiety Inventory for Adults (STAI), and the Anxiety Disorders Interview Schedule for Children (ADIS-C). Results indicate that over 60% of treated children had returned to within normal anxiety levels by the end of treatment and that this percentage was significantly greater than the control group. Treatment gains were maintained at one year. Limitations include a small sample size and an inability to rule out the children’s relationship with the therapist as a factor, since the waitlist participants received no treatment at the time of the study.

Length of postintervention follow-up: 1 year (intervention only).

Kendall, P. C., & Southam-Gerow, M. A. (1996). Long-term follow-up of a cognitive-behavioral therapy for anxiety-disordered youth. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 64(4), 724-730. https://doi.org/10.1037/0022-006X.64.4.724

Type of Study: Randomized controlled trial
Number of Participants: 36

Population:

  • Age — 11-18 years
  • Race/Ethnicity — Not specified
  • Gender — 20 Males and 16 Females
  • Status — Participants were youth who had completed treatment for an anxiety disorder.

Location/Institution: Philadelphia, PA

Summary: (To include basic study design, measures, results, and notable limitations)
This study uses the same sample as Kendall (1994). The purpose of the study was to examine the long-term effects of a psychosocial treatment. Participants were randomly assigned to either cognitive-behavioral therapy [now called Coping Cat] or a waitlist condition. Measures utilized include the Revised Children’s Manifest Anxiety Scale (RCMAS), the Coping Questionnaire, the Children’s Negative Affectivity Self-Statement Questionnaire, the Children’s Depression Inventory (CDI), the Child Behavior Checklist (CBCL), the State-Trait Anxiety Inventory (STAI), the Coping Questionnaire, and the Anxiety Disorders Interview Schedule for Children (ADIS-C). Results indicate that therapeutic gains were maintained according to measures of anxiety, self-reported anxious self-talk, and self-reported depression. Limitations include small sample size, there was no control group for this analysis because the entire original wait-list group had received treatment, and the study did not address the status of alternate disorders.

Length of postintervention follow-up: 2-5 years (intervention only).

Kendall, P. C., Flannery-Schroeder, E., Panichelli-Mindell, S. M., Southam-Gerow, M., Henin, A., & Warman, M. (1997). Therapy for youths with anxiety disorders: A second randomized clinical trial. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 65(3), 366-380. https://doi.org/10.1037/0022-006X.65.3.366

Type of Study: Randomized controlled trial
Number of Participants: 94

Population:

  • Age — 9-13 years
  • Race/Ethnicity — 85% Caucasian, 5% African American, 5% Other, 2% Hispanic, and 2% Asian
  • Gender — 38% Female
  • Status — Participants were children referred from community sources with a diagnosis of primary anxiety disorder.

Location/Institution: Philadelphia, PA

Summary: (To include basic study design, measures, results, and notable limitations)
The purpose of the study was to evaluate a cognitive-behavioral therapy treatment [now called Coping Cat]. Participants were randomly assigned to receive cognitive-behavioral therapy or to an 8-week wait-list group. Measures utilized include the Anxiety Disorders Interview Schedule for Children (ADIS-C), the Revised Children’s Manifest Anxiety Scales (RCMAS), the State Trait Anxiety Inventory for Children (STAIC), the Coping Questionnaire, the Child Behavior Checklist (CBCL), and the Coping Questionnaire. Results indicate significant improvements over time, with the majority indicating greater gains for those receiving treatment. Treatment gains returned cases to within nondeviant limits (i.e., normative comparisons) and were maintained at 1-year follow-up. Client age and comorbid status did not moderate outcomes. A preliminary examination of treatment segments suggested that the enactive exposure (when it follows cognitive-educational training) was an active force in beneficial change. Limitations include small sample size, the waiting-list duration was not identical to the duration of treatment, and reliance on self-reported measures.

Length of postintervention follow-up: 1 year (intervention only).

Kendall, P. C., Safford, S., Flannery-Schroeder, E., & Webb, A. (2004). Child anxiety treatment: Outcomes in adolescence and impact on substance abuse and depression at 7.4 year follow-up. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 72(2), 276-287. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10608-005-3168-z

Type of Study: Randomized controlled trial
Number of Participants: 86

Population:

  • Age — 15-22 years
  • Race/Ethnicity — 86% Caucasian, 6% African American, 4% Biracial, 2% Latino, and 2% Asian
  • Gender — 35% Female
  • Status — Participants were youth referred from community sources and diagnosed with a primary anxiety disorder.

Location/Institution: Philadelphia, PA

Summary: (To include basic study design, measures, results, and notable limitations)
This study used the sample from Kendall et al. (1997). The purpose of the study was to evaluate the maintenance of outcomes of children who received a 16-week cognitive–behavioral treatment (CBT) [now called Coping Cat] for primary anxiety disorders (generalized, separation, and social anxiety disorders). Participants were randomly assigned to the CBT condition or wait-listed children who received CBT after the conclusion of the initial study period. Measures utilized include the child and parent versions of the Anxiety Disorders Interview Schedule (ADIS), or the Lifetime version of the ADIS for those participants over 17, the Revised Children’s Manifest Anxiety Scale (RCMAS), the Children’s Depression Inventory (CDI), the Coping Questionnaire, the Adolescent Perceived Events Scale, the Child Behavior Checklist (CBCL), the Parent Version of the Coping Questionnaire, the State-Trait Anxiety Inventory for Children (STAIC), and the appropriate module of the Comprehensive Adolescent Severity Inventory (CASI). Results indicate according to the diagnostic interviews, a meaningful percentage of participants maintained significant improvements in anxiety at long-term follow-up. With regard to sequelae, positive responders to anxiety treatment, as compared with less positive responders, had a reduced amount of substance use involvement and related problems at long-term follow-up. Limitations include the lack of a comparison group for follow-up, retrospective nature of the data collection, poor generalizability due to ethnicity, and small sample size.

Length of postintervention follow-up: 5.5-9.3 years (intervention only).

Flannery-Schroeder, E., Choudhury, M. S., & Kendall, P. C. (2005). Group and individual cognitive-behavioral treatments for youth with anxiety disorders: 1-year follow-up. Cognitive Therapy and Research, 29(2), 253-259. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10608-005-3168-z

Type of Study: Randomized controlled trial
Number of Participants: 37

Population:

  • Age — 8-14 years
  • Race/Ethnicity — 11% Minority
  • Gender — 60% Male
  • Status — Participants were referred to a clinic for an anxiety disorder.

Location/Institution: Philadelphia, PA

Summary: (To include basic study design, measures, results, and notable limitations)
The purpose of the study was to report the 1-year follow-up of a cognitive-behavioral treatment [now called Coping Cat] for anxiety disorders in children and adolescents. Participants were randomly assigned to individual cognitive-behavioral treatment (ICBT), group cognitive-behavioral treatment (GCBT), or a waitlist control (WLC) condition. Measures utilized include the Anxiety Disorders Interview Schedule for Children (ADIS-C), the Revised Children’s Manifest Anxiety Scale (RCMAS), the State-Trait Anxiety Inventory for Children (STAIC), the State-Trait Anxiety Inventory (STAI), the Child Behavior Checklist (CBCL), the Coping Questionnaire, and the Teacher Report Form (TRF). Results indicate that previously reported posttreatment results demonstrated significant reductions in anxiety whereas children in the WLC failed to demonstrate changes in report of anxiety or in diagnostic status. At 1-year follow-up, 81% of ICBT and 77% of GCBT children no longer met criteria for their primary anxiety disorder. Multivariate analyses of variance demonstrated maintenance of treatment gains for both ICBT and CGBT but failed to reveal differences between the conditions. Limitations include small sample size and inability to control for maturation.

Length of postintervention follow-up: 1 year (intervention only).

Kendall, P. C., Hudson, J. L., Gosch, E., Flannery-Schroeder, E., & Suveg, C. (2008). Cognitive-behavioral therapy for anxiety disordered youth: A randomized clinical trial evaluating child and family modalities. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 76(2), 282-297. https://doi.org/10.1037/0022-006X.76.2.282

Type of Study: Randomized controlled trial
Number of Participants: 161

Population:

  • Age — 7-14 years (Mean=10.27 years)
  • Race/Ethnicity — 85% Caucasian, 9% African American, 3% Hispanic, and 3% Other/Mixed
  • Gender — 44% Female
  • Status — Participants were youth referred by community sources with a diagnosis of a principal anxiety disorder.

Location/Institution: Not specified

Summary: (To include basic study design, measures, results, and notable limitations)
The purpose of the study was to compare the relative efficacy of individual (child) cognitive-behavioral therapy (ICBT) [now called Coping Cat], family cognitive-behavioral therapy (FCBT), and a family-based education/support/attention (FESA) active control for treating anxiety disordered youth. Participants were randomly assigned to ICBT for anxious children (FCBT with some Coping Cat components) or to a FESA comparison group. Measures utilized include the Anxiety Disorders Interview Schedule for Children (ADIS-C/P), the Multidimensional Anxiety Scale for Children (MASC), the Coping Questionnaire-Child (CQ-C), the Child Behavior Checklist (CBCL), the Teacher Report Form (TRF), and the Coping Questionnaire-Parent (CQ-P). Results indicate that children evidenced treatment gains in all conditions, although FCBT and ICBT were superior to FESA in reducing the presence and principality of the principal anxiety disorder, and ICBT outperformed FCBT and FESA on teacher reports of child anxiety. Treatment gains, when found, were maintained at 1-year follow-up. FCBT outperformed ICBT when both parents had an anxiety disorder. Children whose parents also had an anxiety disorder showed greater improvement in the FESA condition. Limitations include relatively small sample size, poor generalizability due to ethnicity, and therapists were not blind to the comparison treatments

Length of postintervention follow-up: 1 year.

Walkup, J. T., Albano, A. M., Piacentini, J., Birmaher, B., Compton, S. N., Sherrill, J. T., Ginsburg, G. S., Rynn, M. A., McCracken, J., Waslick, B., Iyengar, S., March, J. S., & Kendall, P. C. (2008). Cognitive behavioral therapy, sertraline, or a combination in childhood anxiety. The New England Journal of Medicine, 359(26), 2753-2766. https://doi.org/10.1056/NEJMoa0804633

Type of Study: Randomized controlled trial
Number of Participants: 488

Population:

  • Age — 7-17 years
  • Race/Ethnicity — 79% White, 12% Hispanic, 9% Black, 8% Other, 3% Asian, 1% American Indian, and 0.4% Pacific Islander
  • Gender — 50% Female
  • Status — Participants were children with a primary diagnosis of separation or generalized anxiety disorder or social phobia.

Location/Institution: United States

Summary: (To include basic study design, measures, results, and notable limitations)
The purpose of the study was to assess the relative or combined efficacy of adapted cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT) [now called Coping Cat], and selective serotonin-reuptake inhibitors. Participants were randomly assigned to receive CBT, sertraline (Zoloft) alone, a combination of CBT plus Zoloft, or a placebo. Measures utilized include the Clinical Global Impression Improvement Scale (CGII) and the Pediatric Anxiety Rating Scale (PARS). Results indicate that the percentages of children who were rated as very much or much improved on the CGII were 80.7% for combination therapy, 59.7% for cognitive behavioral therapy, and 54.9% for sertraline; all therapies were superior to placebo (23.7%). Combination therapy was superior to both monotherapies. Results on the PARS documented a similar magnitude and pattern of response; combination therapy had a greater response than CBT, which was equivalent to sertraline, and all therapies were superior to placebo. Adverse events, including suicidal and homicidal ideation, were no more frequent in the sertraline group than in the placebo group. No child attempted suicide. There was less insomnia, fatigue, sedation, and restlessness associated with CBT than with sertraline. Limitations include lack of follow-up, not including the most socio-economically disadvantaged children, children and teens with major depression and pervasive developmental disorders were excluded, thus may have limited the generalizability of the results.

Length of postintervention follow-up: None.

Ginsburg, G. S., Becker, E. M., Keeton, C. P., Sakolsky, D., Piacentini, J., Albano, A. M., Compton, S. N., Lyengar, S., Sullivan, K., Caporino, N., Peris, T., Birmaher, B., Rynn, M., March, J., & Kendall, P. C. (2014). Naturalistic follow-up of youths treated for pediatric anxiety disorders. Journal of the American Medical Association Psychiatry (JAMA Psychiatry), 71(3), 310-318. https://doi.org/10.1001/jamapsychiatry.2013.4186

Type of Study: Randomized controlled trial
Number of Participants: 288

Population:

  • Age — 11-26 years (Mean=17 years)
  • Race/Ethnicity — 82% White, 9% African American, 8% Hispanic, 7% Other, and 3% Asian
  • Gender — 56% Female
  • Status — Participants were children with a primary diagnosis of separation or generalized anxiety disorder or social phobia.

Location/Institution: Six academic sites in the United States

Summary: (To include basic study design, measures, results, and notable limitations)
This study used a subsample from Walkup et al. (2008). The purpose of the study was to determine whether acute clinical improvement and treatment type (i.e., Coping Cat, medication, or their combination) predicted remission of anxiety and improvement in global functioning at a mean of 6 years after randomization and to examine predictors of outcomes at follow-up. Participants were randomly assigned to 1 of 4 interventions (Coping Cat, medication, combination, or pill placebo) in the Child/Adolescent Anxiety Multimodal Study. Measures utilized include the Clinical Global Impression–Severity scale, the Children’s Global Assessment Scale, the Brief Family Assessment Measure, the Brief Symptom Inventory, the State-Trait Anxiety Inventory–Trait, the Anxiety Disorders Interview Schedule Supplemental Services Form, and the Life Events Scale. Results indicate that almost half of the sample (46.5%) was in remission at follow-up. Responders to acute treatment were significantly more likely to be in remission at follow-up and had less severe anxiety symptoms and higher functioning. Limitations include the attrition rate of the original study sample at the follow-up time point, the naturalistic nature of the follow-up study (as other treatments may have occurred), and the generalizability of the findings (particularly to youth from nonwhite and lower-SES backgrounds).

Length of postintervention follow-up: 4-9 years with a mean of 6 years.

Silk, J. S., Tan, P. Z., Ladouceur, C. D., Meller, S., Siegle, G. J., McMakin, D. L., Forbes, E. E., Dahl, R. D., Kendall, P. C., Mannarino, A., & Ryan, N. D. (2018). A randomized clinical trial comparing individual cognitive behavioral therapy and child-centered therapy for child anxiety disorders. Journal of Clinical Child & Adolescent Psychology, 47(4). 542-554. https://doi.org/10.1080/15374416.2016.1138408

Type of Study: Randomized controlled trial
Number of Participants: 133

Population:

  • Age — 9-14 years (Mean=10.96 years)
  • Race/Ethnicity — 89% Caucasian, 5% Biracial, 4% African-American, and 2% Hispanic
  • Gender — 56% Female
  • Status — Participants were children with a primary diagnosis of generalized anxiety disorder.

Location/Institution: United States

Summary: (To include basic study design, measures, results, and notable limitations)
The purpose of the study was to compare individual cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT) for child anxiety disorders [now called Coping Cat] and child-centered therapy (CCT) for child anxiety disorders on rates of treatment response and recovery at post-treatment and one-year follow-up, as well as on real-world measures of emotional functioning. Participants were randomly assigned to CBT or CCT. Measures utilized include the Wechsler Abbreviated Scale of Intelligence, the Schedule for Affective Disorders and Schizophrenia in School-Age Children—Present and Lifetime version (K-SADS-PL), the Pediatric Anxiety Rating Scale (PARS), and the Positive and Negative Affect Scale for Children (PANAS-C). Results indicate that the majority of youth in both CBT and CCT were classified as treatment responders, but youth treated with CBT were significantly more likely to fully recover, no longer meeting diagnostic criteria for any of the targeted anxiety disorders and no longer showing residual symptoms. Youth treated with CBT also reported significantly lower negative emotions associated with recent negative events experienced in daily life during the latter stages of treatment relative to youth treated with CCT. Furthermore, a significantly higher percentage of youth treated with CBT compared to CCT were in recovery at one-year follow-up. Limitations include findings may not generalize to treatments combined with medication, high attrition rate, and sample was primarily Caucasian and middle class, limiting generalization to more diverse samples.

Length of postintervention follow-up: 1 year.

Villabø, M. A., Narayanan, M., Compton, S. N., Kendall, P. C., & Neumer, S.-P. (2018). Cognitive-behavioral therapy for youth anxiety: An effectiveness evaluation in community practice. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 86(9), 751-764. https://doi.org/10.1037/ccp0000326

Type of Study: Randomized controlled trial
Number of Participants: 165

Population:

  • Age — 7-13 years (Mean=10.46 years)
  • Race/Ethnicity — 100% Norwegian
  • Gender — 54% Male
  • Status — Participants were youth with a primary diagnosis of generalized anxiety disorder or social phobia.

Location/Institution: South-Eastern Norway

Summary: (To include basic study design, measures, results, and notable limitations)
The purpose of the study was to compare the effectiveness of individual Cognitive Behavioral Therapy (ICBT) [now called Coping Cat] and group Cognitive Behavioral Therapy (GCBT) for referred children with anxiety disorders within community mental health clinics. Participants were randomly assigned to ICBT, GCBT, or wait list (WL). WL participants were randomized to one of the two active treatment conditions following the wait period. Measures utilized include the Anxiety Disorders Interview Schedule for DSM-IV-TR (ADIS), the Questionnaire for Evaluation of Treatment, the Multidimensional Anxiety Scale for Children - child and parent versions (MASC), the Child Behavior Checklist (CBCL), and the Child Global Assessment of Severity (CGAS). Results indicate both ICBT and GCBT were superior to WL on all outcomes. Additionally, planned pairwise comparisons found no significant differences between ICBT and GCBT. GCBT was superior to ICBT for children diagnosed with social anxiety disorder. Improvement continued during two-year follow-up with no significant between group differences. Limitations include CBT was compared to a waitlist and not to treatment as usual, which may inflate the treatment results, insufficient power to detect small differences between the two active groups, and it is not known what other services children received during the follow-up period.

Length of postintervention follow-up: 2 years (intervention only).

Crane, M. E., Norris, L. A., Frank, H. E., Klugman, J., Ginsburg, G. S., Keeton, C., Albano, A. M., Piacentini, J., Peris, T. S., Compton, S. N., Sakolsky, D., Birmaher, B., & Kendall, P. C. (2021). Impact of treatment improvement on long-term anxiety: Results from CAMS and CAMELS. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 89(2), 126-133. https://doi.org/10.1037/ccp0000523

Type of Study: Randomized controlled trial
Number of Participants: 319

Population:

  • Age — 7-17 years
  • Race/Ethnicity — 82% White and 8% Hispanic
  • Gender — 55% Male
  • Status — Participants were youth who had participated in the Child/Adolescent Anxiety Multimodal Study (CAMS).

Location/Institution: Six university clinics in the United States

Summary: (To include basic study design, measures, results, and notable limitations)
This study used a subsample from Walkup et al. (2008). The purpose of the study was to examine associations between change in youth and family characteristics during youth anxiety treatment and long-term anxiety severity and overall functioning. Participants were randomly assigned to 12 weeks of cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT) [now called Coping Cat], medication, their combination, or pill placebo. Measures utilized include the Anxiety Disorders Interview Schedule for DSM-IV, Child and Parent Versions (ADIS-C/P), the Children’s Global Assessment Scale (CGAS), the Global Assessment of Functioning (GAF), the Brief Symptom Inventory (BSI), the Brief Family Assessment Measure-III (BFAM), and the Family Burden Assessment Scale (FBAS). Results indicate that improvements in factors related to functioning (i.e., overall functioning, family dysfunction, caregiver strain) were associated with improvements in anxiety severity in the Child/Adolescent Anxiety Multimodal Extended Long-term Study (CAMELS). Improvements in factors related to psychopathology (i.e., anxiety severity, caregiver psychopathology) were associated with improvements in overall functioning in CAMELS. Changes in each of the variables examined (rather than baseline values) predicted anxiety severity and overall functioning. Limitations include a naturalistic follow up which lacked a control group, participants could have received treatment during the follow-up period, and diagnoses other than anxiety disorders were not considered.

Length of postintervention follow-up: Approximately 3 to 11 years.

Additional References

Kendall, P. C., & Hedtke, K. (2006). Cognitive-behavioral therapy for anxious children: Therapist manual (3rd ed.). Workbook Publishing.

Kendall, P. C., & Hedtke, K. (2006). Coping Cat workbook. (2nd ed). Workbook Publishing.

Khanna, M., & Kendall, P. C. (2008). Computer assisted CBT for child anxiety: The Coping Cat CD-ROM. Cognitive and Behavioral Practice, 15, 159-165.

Contact Information

Philip C. Kendall, PhD, ABPP
Agency/Affiliation: Temple University
Website: www.workbookpublishing.com
Email:
Phone: (215) 204-7165
Fax: (215) 204-0565

Date Research Evidence Last Reviewed by CEBC: April 2021

Date Program Content Last Reviewed by Program Staff: May 2018

Date Program Originally Loaded onto CEBC: May 2009