Topic: Working with Parents with Cognitive Disabilities: Programs
Definition for Working with Parents with Cognitive Disabilities: Programs:
The Working with Parents with Cognitive Disabilities: Programs topic area focuses on services intended to improve experiences and outcomes with the child welfare system for parents with cognitive disabilities. Parents with cognitive disabilities, as defined by the CEBC, may include individuals who have official developmental disabilities labels, intelligence quotients (IQs) equal to 70 or lower, diagnosis of Intellectual Disability (based on the DSM-5 criteria, which replaced the Mental Retardation diagnosis in the previous DSM versions), learning disabilities, selective neuropsychological difficulties, and/or traumatic brain injuries.
Programs included in this topic area may provide direct services for parents with cognitive disabilities, and include changes in the methods used to assess them for child welfare service planning and changes in the implementation of services to intervene with them. In addition, programs may include systems-based child welfare practices that are meant to increase the effectiveness of working with these parents and the availability of needed supports for those who work with this population. These programs focus on improving the child welfare staff’s ability to communicate with these parents and reducing the barriers between the multiple service systems to which these families may be connected.
The percentage of parents who have cognitive disabilities and are involved with child welfare may be as high as 22%. Studies have shown that, once reported to child welfare, these parents are more likely to have the reported child maltreatment substantiated, to remain active in the child welfare system longer, and to have a greater risk of having their parental rights terminated.
- Target population: Parents with cognitive disabilities who are involved with the child welfare system, as well as child welfare staff and service providers who work with this population.
- Service(s)/types that fit: Direct intervention with parents in individual or group formats or system-level interventions, training programs, and resource materials for child welfare staff and service providers
- Delivered by: Trained paraprofessionals, educators, and health and mental health professionals
- In order to be included: Program must specifically target parents with cognitive disabilities or providers who work with parents with cognitive disabilities
- In order to be rated: The research evidence (as specified by the Scientific Rating Scale) must examine outcomes for parents with cognitive disabilities (e.g., engagement, understanding, knowledge), child welfare outcomes for families involving a parent with cognitive disabilities (e.g., length of time in care, reunification rates, re-entry), or outcomes for providers working with this population (e.g., changes in attitudes or performance, knowledge of techniques or curricula)
Programs in this Topic Area
The programs listed below have been reviewed by the CEBC and, if appropriate, been rated using the Scientific Rating Scale.
Two Programs with a Scientific Rating of 3 - Promising Research Evidence:
Nine Programs with a Scientific Rating of NR - Not able to be Rated:
- Building Foundations Curriculum Guide – non-responderParents with intellectual disabilities
- Designing Support Groups for Parents with Intellectual DisabilitiesIndividuals or organizations who work with parents with intellectual disabilities
- Parenting Young Children (PYC)Parents with learning difficulties who are the main caregivers of a child aged six months through six years old
- Parents with Intellectual Disabilities
[Parents with Mild Cognitive Impairments]Child welfare case workers, case aides, life skills workers, and professionals from collateral agencies; foster parents may attend
- Positive Parenting ResourceFamilies headed by parents with intellectual and/or functional limitations
- Project IMPACTParents with intellectual and/or significant learning disabilities (ID/LD)
- Sunny Side of the StreetSocial service providers; parents who have cognitive limitations and their children preschool-age children
- Working with Families with Children/Parents with Developmental DisabilitiesChild welfare case workers, case aides, life skills workers and professionals from collateral agencies. Foster parents may attend.
- Working with Parents Who Have Cognitive LimitationsTeachers, nurses, and social service providers who work with children and families
Why was this topic chosen by the Advisory Committee?
The Working with Parents with Cognitive Disabilities: Programs topic area is relevant to child welfare because up to 22% of the parents with cognitive disabilities are involved in the child welfare system and child welfare agencies are not always well-equipped to serve these parents. Child welfare workers and other service providers are often uninformed about how to best serve these parents and are in need of specific information and training that will assist in engaging and supporting them. Workers may also be operating with the false assumption that parents with cognitive disabilities are unable to parent safely under any circumstances.
There are programs and practices that have shown promise in working with parents with cognitive disabilities; however, they are not well-known across the country. The field could benefit from knowing what services are effective with these parents. Ultimately, through improved services to parents with cognitive disabilities, more of them will be able to parent successfully, keeping their children safely at home, or—if that is not possible—maintaining a positive connection to their children over time.
Former CEBC Advisory Committee Member
Sandra Azar, PhD, Professor
Department of Psychology, The Pennsylvania State University
University Park, PA