Prolonged Exposure Therapy for PTSD for Adults (PE)

1  — Well-Supported by Research Evidence
Medium

About This Program

Target Population: Adults with a variety of traumas such as combat, sexual assault, car accidents, violent crimes, and acts of terrorism

Program Overview

PE consists of 8 -15 treatment sessions that are 60-90 minutes each. Clients are encouraged to repeatedly approach situations or activities they are avoiding because they remind them of their trauma (in vivo exposure) as well as to revisit the traumatic memory through retelling it (imaginal exposure). Psychoeducation about common reactions to trauma as well as breathing retraining exercises are also included in the treatment. The aim of in vivo and imaginal exposure is to help clients emotionally process their traumatic memories through the imaginal and in vivo exposures. Through these procedures, clients learn that they can safely remember the trauma and experience trauma reminders, that the distress that initially resulted from confrontations with these reminders decreases over time, and that they are capable of tolerating this distress. Prolonged Exposure Therapy for Adolescents (PE-A) is also highlighted on the CEBC website in the Trauma Treatment - Client-Level Interventions (Child & Adolescent) topic area, please click here to see that entry.

Program Goals

The overall goals of Prolonged Exposure Therapy for PTSD for Adults (PE) are:

  • Promote the clients' ability to emotionally process their traumatic experiences
  • Diminish PTSD and other trauma-related symptoms including depression, general anxiety, anger, and guilt
  • Improve social functioning and physical health

Logic Model

The program representative did not provide information about a Logic Model for Prolonged Exposure Therapy for PTSD for Adults (PE).

Essential Components

The essential components of Prolonged Exposure Therapy for PTSD for Adults (PE) include:

  • Delivering rationales to the client for the treatment program, in vivo exposure, and imaginal exposure in order to increase client understanding of the treatment components and how they will help diminish PTSD symptoms
  • Creating an in vivo exposure hierarchy together with the client and guiding the client in implementing in vivo exposures to trauma reminders and situations that feel unsafe as a result of the trauma
  • Conducting repeated and prolonged imaginal exposure to the trauma memory with the client, where the client is asked to recall and retell the trauma memory
  • Delivering psychoeducation regarding common reactions to trauma
  • Teaching breathing retraining exercise that can help patients to feel more calm

Program Delivery

Adult Services

Prolonged Exposure Therapy for PTSD for Adults (PE) directly provides services to adults (regardless of whether they are parents or caregivers) and addresses the following:

  • Posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD)

Recommended Intensity:

Weekly 60-90 minute sessions

Recommended Duration:

8-15 weeks

Delivery Settings

This program is typically conducted in a(n):

  • Outpatient Clinic
  • Community-based Agency / Organization / Provider
  • Group or Residential Care

Homework

Prolonged Exposure Therapy for PTSD for Adults (PE) includes a homework component:

Clients are asked to do homework after each session of treatment. Homework consists of reading summaries of the information presented in the session and sharing it with family members (as appropriate), completing in vivo exercises, and completing imaginal exposure homework.

Languages

Prolonged Exposure Therapy for PTSD for Adults (PE) has materials available in languages other than English:

Japanese, Spanish

For information on which materials are available in these languages, please check on the program's website or contact the program representative (contact information is listed at the bottom of this page).

Resources Needed to Run Program

The typical resources for implementing the program are:

A quiet room with no interruptions or distractions as is required by any therapy is necessary to implement the program. Digital voice recorders or use of the PE Coach application for Android and Apple phones are required for audio recording treatment sessions for use as part the client's homework.

Manuals and Training

Prerequisite/Minimum Provider Qualifications

Licensed mental health professionals or those working under the supervision of a licensed mental health professional which can include psychologists, social workers, and nurses.

Manual Information

There is a manual that describes how to deliver this program.

Training Information

There is training available for this program.

Training Contact:
Training Type/Location:

Training is provided in Philadelphia twice yearly. Training can also be provided on site.

Number of days/hours:

4 full days (32 hours)

Implementation Information

Pre-Implementation Materials

There are no pre-implementation materials to measure organizational or provider readiness for Prolonged Exposure Therapy for PTSD for Adults (PE).

Formal Support for Implementation

There is formal support available for implementation of Prolonged Exposure Therapy for PTSD for Adults (PE) as listed below:

After completion of the intensive 4-day workshop in PE therapy, participants may participate in case consultation to solidify their skills in delivering PE and gain confidence in implementing the treatment. Certification as a PE therapist is offered after completion of 2 full PE cases. Please contact the program representative for more information on PE consultation.

An online listserv is also available to participants of the intensive 4-day workshop.

Fidelity Measures

There are fidelity measures for Prolonged Exposure Therapy for PTSD for Adults (PE) as listed below:

Fidelity measures for PE have been developed for use by raters trained in PE to monitor adherence to PE protocols in research studies. They are designed to determine adherence to all required Therapy Elements as well as to assess relevant Therapist Factors that could affect the outcome of the treatment. In this system, these two areas of concentration determine the total overall adherence and competency for each PE therapy session. Fidelity measures for PE can be obtained by contacting the program representative.

Implementation Guides or Manuals

There are implementation guides or manuals for Prolonged Exposure Therapy for PTSD for Adults (PE) as listed below:

  • Foa, E. B., Hembree, E. A., & Rothbaum, B. O. (2007). Prolonged Exposure Therapy for PTSD: Emotional processing of traumatic experiences – Therapist guide. Oxford University Press.
  • Rothbaum, B. O., Foa, E. B., & Hembree, E. A. (2007). Reclaiming your life from a traumatic experience: Workbook. Oxford University Press.

Research on How to Implement the Program

Research has been conducted on how to implement Prolonged Exposure Therapy for PTSD for Adults (PE) as listed below:

  • Foa, E. B., Gillihan, S. J., & Bryant, R. A. (2013). Challenges and successes in dissemination of evidence-based treatments for posttraumatic stress: Lessons learned from Prolonged Exposure Therapy for PTSD. Psychological Science in the Public Interest, 14(2), 65-111. https://doi.org/10.1177/1529100612468841

Relevant Published, Peer-Reviewed Research

Child Welfare Outcome: Child/Family Well-Being

A meta-analysis has been conducted on Prolonged Exposure Therapy for PTSD for Adults (PE):

  • Powers, M. B., Halpern, J. M., Ferenschak, M. P., Gillihan, S. J., & Foa, E. B. (2010). A meta-analytic review of Prolonged exposure for posttraumatic stress disorder. Clinical Psychology Review, 30(6), 635-641. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.cpr.2010.04.007

The CEBC reviews all of the articles that have been published in peer-reviewed journals as part of the rating process. When there are more than 10 published, peer-reviewed articles, the CEBC identifies the most relevant articles, with a focus on randomized controlled trials (RCTs) and controlled studies that have an impact on the rating. The articles chosen for Prolonged Exposure Therapy for PTSD for Adults (PE) are summarized below:

Foa, E. B., Rothbaum, B. O., Riggs, D. S., & Murdock, T. B. (1991). Treatment of posttraumatic stress disorder in rape victims: A comparison between cognitive-behavioral procedures and counseling. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 59(5), 715−723. https://doi.org/10.1037/0022-006X.59.5.715

Type of Study: Randomized controlled trial
Number of Participants: 45

Population:

  • Age — Mean=31.8 years
  • Race/Ethnicity — 73% White, 25% Black, and 2% Hispanic
  • Gender — 100% Female
  • Status — Participants were recruited through referrals from local professionals and victim assistance agencies, recruitment by local newspaper advertisements, and from a separate assessment study of the response to rape.

Location/Institution: Department of Psychiatry, Medical College of Pennsylvania

Summary: (To include basic study design, measures, results, and notable limitations)
The purpose of the study was to examine the effectiveness of Prolonged Exposure Therapy [now called Prolonged Exposure Therapy for PTSD for Adults (PE)]. Participants were randomly assigned to 1 of 4 conditions: Stress Inoculation Training (SIT), PE, supportive counseling (SC), or wait-list control (WL). Measures utilized include the Rape Aftermath Symptom Test (RAST), the Slate-Trait Anxiety Inventory (STAl), and the Beck Depression Inventory (BDI). Results indicate that all conditions produced improvement on all measures immediately posttreatment and at follow-up. However, SIT produced significantly more improvement on PTSD symptoms than did SC and WL immediately following treatment. At follow-up, PE produced superior outcome on PTSD symptoms. Limitations include small sample size, low recruitment rates, and concerns about generalizability.

Length of controlled postintervention follow-up: Mean=3.5 months.

Foa, E. B., Dancu, C. V., Hembree, E. A., Jaycox, L. H., Meadows, E. A., & Street, G. P. (1999). A comparison of exposure therapy, stress inoculation training, and their combination for reducing posttraumatic stress disorder in female assault victims. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 67(2), 194-200. https://doi.org/10.1037//0022-006x.67.2.194

Type of Study: Randomized controlled trial
Number of Participants: 96

Population:

  • Age — Mean=34.9 years
  • Race/Ethnicity — 63% Caucasian and 36% African American
  • Gender — 100% Female
  • Status — Participants were female victims of sexual and nonsexual assault with chronic posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD).

Location/Institution: Not Specified

Summary: (To include basic study design, measures, results, and notable limitations)
The purpose of the study was to assess assault victims with chronic PTSD that were assigned to one of 4 treatment conditions: Prolonged Exposure (PE) [now called Prolonged Exposure Therapy for PTSD for Adults (PE)], Stress Inoculation Training (SIT), combined treatment (PE-SIT), or wait-list control (WL). Participants were randomly assigned to PE, SIT, PE-SIT, or WL. Measures utilized include the Structured Clinical Interview for DSM–IV Axis I Disorders with Psychotic Screen (SCID), the PTSD Symptom Scale—Interview (PSS-I), the Beck Depression Inventory (BDI), Social Adjustment Scale (SAS), and State-Trait Anxiety Inventory (STAI). Results indicate that all 3 active treatments reduced severity of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and depression compared with WL, but did not differ significantly from each other, and these gains were maintained throughout the follow-up period. However, in the intent-to-treat sample, PE was superior to SIT and PE-SIT on posttreatment anxiety and global social adjustment at follow-up and had larger effect sizes on PTSD severity, depression, and anxiety. SIT and PE-SIT did not differ significantly from each other on any outcome measure. Limitations include differences in dropout rates between the treatment groups.

Length of controlled postintervention follow-up: 3, 6, and 12 months.

Resick, P. A., Nishith, P., Weaver, T. L., Astin, M. C., & Feuer, C. A. (2002). A comparison of Cognitive-Processing Therapy with Prolonged Exposure and a waiting condition for the treatment of chronic posttraumatic stress disorder in female rape victims. Journal of Counseling and Clinical Psychology, 70(4), 867-879. https://doi.org/10.1037/0022-006X.70.4.867

Type of Study: Randomized controlled trial
Number of Participants: 171

Population:

  • Age — Mean=32 years
  • Race/Ethnicity — 71% White, 25% African American, and 4% Other
  • Gender — 100% Female
  • Status — Participants were female rape victims.

Location/Institution: Not specified

Summary: (To include basic study design, measures, results, and notable limitations)
The purpose of the study was to compare Cognitive-Processing Therapy (CPT) with Prolonged Exposure (PE) [now called Prolonged Exposure Therapy for PTSD for Adults (PE)], and a minimal attention condition (MA) for the treatment of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and depression. Participants were randomly assigned to one of the three groups. Measures utilized include the Clinician-Administered PTSD Scale (CAPS), the Structured Interview for DSM–IV—Patient Version (SCID), Standardized Trauma Interview, the PTSD Symptom Scale, the Structured Clinical Interview for DSM–IV, the Beck Depression Inventory, the Trauma-Related Guilt Inventory (TRGI), and the Expectancy of Therapeutic Outcome Scale. Results indicate that CPT and PE treatments were superior to MA. The two therapies had similar results except that CPT produced better scores on 2 of 4 guilt subscales. Among those who completed the treatments as designed, the effect sizes for both treatments were quite large. There was a slight advantage in effect sizes and end-state functioning favoring CPT over PE through the 3-month follow-up. Limitations include concerns regarding generalization beyond rape traumas.

Length of controlled postintervention follow-up: 3 months, some women also received a 9-month follow-up.

Foa, E. B., Hembree, E. A., Cahill, S. P., Rauch, S. A., Riggs, D. S., Feeny, N. C., & Yadin, E. (2005). Randomized trial of prolonged exposure for posttraumatic stress disorder with and without cognitive restructuring: Outcome at academic and community clinics. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 73(5), 953-964. https://doi.org/10.1037/0022-006X.73.5.953

Type of Study: Randomized controlled trial
Number of Participants: 171

Population:

  • Age — Mean=31 years
  • Race/Ethnicity — 88 Caucasian, 78 African American, and 13 Other
  • Gender — 100% Female
  • Status — Participants were female assault survivors with chronic posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD).

Location/Institution: Center for the Treatment and Study of Anxiety (CTSA), or through Women Organized Against Rape (WOAR)

Summary: (To include basic study design, measures, results, and notable limitations)
The purpose of the study was to examine Prolonged Exposure (PE) [now called Prolonged Exposure Therapy for PTSD for Adults (PE)], PE plus cognitive restructuring (PE/CR), or wait-list (WL) for participants who suffered from PTSD. Participants were randomly assigned to PE, PE/CR or the WL condition. Measures utilized include the Structured Clinical Interview for DSM–IV Axis I Disorders With Psychotic Screen, the PTSD Symptom Scale—Interview (PSS), the Beck Depression Inventory (BDI), the Social Adjustment Scale (SAS), and the PTSD Symptom Scale—Self-Report (PSS–SR). Results indicate that both treatments reduced PTSD and depression in intent-to-treat and completer samples compared with the WL condition; social functioning improved in the completer sample. The addition of CR did not enhance treatment outcome. No site differences were found: Treatment in the hands of counselors with minimal cognitive– behavioral therapy (CBT) experience was as efficacious as that of CBT experts. Treatment gains were maintained at follow-up, although a minority of patients received additional treatment. Limitations include lack of control group and generalizability to other population groups.

Length of controlled postintervention follow-up: 3, 6, and 12 months.

Rothbaum, B. O., Astin, M. C., & Marsteller, F. (2005). Prolonged exposure versus eye movement desensitization and reprocessing (EMDR) for PTSD rape victims. Journal of Traumatic Stress, 18(6), 607-616. https://doi.org/10.1002/jts.20069

Type of Study: Randomized controlled trial
Number of Participants: 74

Population:

  • Age — Mean=33.8 years
  • Race/Ethnicity — 68% Caucasian
  • Gender — 100% Female
  • Status — Participants were individuals with posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD).

Location/Institution: Not specified

Summary: (To include basic study design, measures, results, and notable limitations)
The purpose of the study was to evaluate the efficacy of Prolonged Exposure (PE) [now called Prolonged Exposure Therapy for PTSD for Adults (PE)], and Eye Movement Desensitization and Reprocessing (EMDR) compared to a no-treatment waitlist control (WAIT) in the treatment of PTSD in adult female rape victims. Participants were randomly assigned to either PE, EMDR or WAIT conditions. Measures utilized include the Clinician-Administered PTSD Scale (CAPS), the Assault Information Interview (AII), the Stressful Life Events Screening Questionnaire (SLESQ), the Structured Clinical Interview for DSM–IV Non Patient Version (SCID), the PTSD Symptom Scale-Self-Report (PSS-SR), the Impact of Event Scale-Revised (IES-R), the Beck Depression Inventory (BDI), the Dissociative Experiences Scale-II (DES-II), and the State-Trait Anxiety Inventory (STAI). Results indicate that improvement in PTSD was significantly greater in both the PE and EMDR group than the WAIT group. Limitations include small sample size and lack of generalizability due to gender.

Length of controlled postintervention follow-up: 6 months (PE and EMDR only).

Rothbaum, B. O., Cahill, S. P., Foa, E. B., Davidson, J. R., Compton, J., Connor, K. M., Astin, M. C., & Hahn, C. G. (2006). Augmentation of sertraline with prolonged exposure in the treatment of posttraumatic stress disorder. Journal of Traumatic Stress, 19(5), 625-638. https://doi.org/10.1002/jts.20170

Type of Study: Randomized controlled trial
Number of Participants: 74

Population:

  • Age — Mean=39.3 years
  • Race/Ethnicity — 80% White, 19% African American, and 2% Other
  • Gender — 65% Female
  • Status — Participants were outpatient men and women with chronic posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD).

Location/Institution: Emory University in Atlanta, Georgia; University of Pennsylvania in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania; and Duke University in Durham, North Carolina

Summary: (To include basic study design, measures, results, and notable limitations)
The purpose of the study was to determine whether augmenting sertraline with Prolonged Exposure (PE) [now called Prolonged Exposure Therapy for PTSD for Adults (PE)] would result in greater improvement than continuation with sertraline alone. Participants were randomly assigned to either continue sertraline on its own or to receive sertraline in combination with PE. Measures utilized include the Structured Clinical Interview for DSM–Patient Edition with Psychotic Screen (SCID), the Standardized Trauma Interview (STI), the Structured Interview for PTSD (SIP), the Beck Depression Inventory (BDI), and the State-Trait Anxiety Inventory (STAI). Results indicate that continuing sertraline on its own led to no further reductions, while participants who received PE in addition to sertraline showed further reduction in PTSD severity. This effect was observed only for participants who showed a partial response to medication. Limitations include lack of a PE-only control group, lack of follow-up, and that findings may not generalize to other medications.

Length of controlled postintervention follow-up: None.

Schnurr, P. P., Friedman, M. J., Engel, C. C., Foa, E. B., Shea, M. T., Chow, B. K., Resick, P. A., Thurston, V., Orsillo, S. M., Haug, R., Turner, C., & Bernardy, N. (2007). Cognitive behavioral therapy for posttraumatic stress disorder in women. Journal of the American Medical Association, 297(8), 820-830. https://doi.org/10.1001/jama.297.8.820 

Type of Study: Randomized controlled trial
Number of Participants: 277

Population:

  • Age — Not specified
  • Race/Ethnicity — Not specified
  • Gender — 100% Female
  • Status — Participants were women who suffered from posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD).

Location/Institution: 9 VA medical centers

Summary: (To include basic study design, measures, results, and notable limitations)
The purpose of the study was to compare Prolonged Exposure (PE) [now called Prolonged Exposure Therapy for PTSD for Adults (PE)] with Present-Centered Therapy for the treatment of PTSD. Participants were randomly assigned to PE or Present-Centered Therapy. Measures utilized include the Clinician-Administered PTSD Scale (CAPS), the PTSD Checklist, and the Structured Clinical Interview for DSM–IV (SCID). Results indicate that women who received PE experienced greater reduction of PTSD symptoms relative to women who received Present-Centered Therapy. The PE group was more likely than the Present-Centered Therapy group to no longer meet PTSD diagnostic criteria and achieve total remission. Limitations include attrition bias and findings may not generalize to other populations.

Length of controlled postintervention follow-up: 3 and 6 months.

Rauch, S. A., Grunfeld, T. E., Yadin, E., Cahill, S. P., Hembree, E., & Foa, E. B. (2009). Changes in reported physical health symptoms and social function with prolonged exposure therapy for chronic posttraumatic stress disorder. Depression and Anxiety, 26(8), 732-738. https://doi.org/10.1002/da.20518

Type of Study: Randomized controlled trial
Number of Participants: 107

Population:

  • Age — Mean=31 years
  • Race/Ethnicity — 88 Caucasian, 78 African American, and 13 Other
  • Gender — 100% Female
  • Status — Participants were female assault survivors with chronic posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD).

Location/Institution: Center for the Treatment and Study of Anxiety (CTSA), or through Women Organized Against Rape (WOAR)

Summary: (To include basic study design, measures, results, and notable limitations)
This study used a subset of the sample from Foa et al. (2005). The purpose of the study was to compare Prolonged Exposure (PE) [now called Prolonged Exposure Therapy for PTSD for Adults (PE)] or PE combined with Cognitive Restructuring (PE/CR)  to a waitlist and examine negative health perceptions and general social functioning change with treatment of chronic PTSD among women. Participants were randomly assigned to PE, PE/CR or waitlist control group. Measures utilized include the Pennebaker Inventory of Limbic Languidness (PILL), the Social Adjustment Scale, the Structured Clinical Interview for DSM–IV Axis I Disorders with Psychotic Screen, the PTSD Symptom Scale—Interview (PSS), the Beck Depression Inventory (BDI), the Social Adjustment Scale (SAS), and the PTSD Symptom Scale—Self-Report (PSS–SR). Results indicate that self-reported physical health difficulties were significantly reduced in the PE and PE/CR conditions compared to the waitlist condition. These reductions did not demonstrate significant change during the 12-month follow-up period. Self-reported discomfort associated with physical health difficulties did not demonstrate significant change over treatment. No difference was detected between the active treatment and waitlist conditions. Both the PE and PE/CR groups reported improved social functioning at posttreatment compared to the waitlist. Additional improvement in general social functioning was found between 3- and 12-month follow-up assessments. Changes in PTSD and depressive symptoms over treatment accounted for 29% of the variance in reduction of reported health problems and 30% of the variance in improvement of general social functioning. Importantly, only changes in PTSD symptoms significantly contribute to the model predicting change in physical health problems with depression associated only at a trend level. Limitations include small sample size, missing data, and reliance on self-reported measures.

Length of controlled postintervention follow-up: 3 and 12 months.

Nacasch, N., Foa, E. B., Huppert, J. D., Tzur, D., Fostick, L., Dinstein, Y., Polliack, M., & Zohar, J. (2011). Prolonged Exposure Therapy for combat- and terror-related posttraumatic stress disorder: A randomized control comparison with treatment as usual. The Journal of Clinical Psychiatry, 72(9), 1174-1180. https://doi.org/10.4088/JCP.09m05682blu

Type of Study: Randomized controlled trial
Number of Participants: 30

Population:

  • Age — TAU: Mean=33.7 years and PE: Mean=34.8 years
  • Race/Ethnicity — Not specified
  • Gender — Not specified
  • Status — Participants were patients in a psychiatric trauma unit with posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) related to combat or terror.

Location/Institution: Chaim Sheba Medical Center in Israel

Summary: (To include basic study design, measures, results, and notable limitations)
The purpose of the study was to examine patients of a trauma unit within a psychiatric outpatient clinic. Participants were randomly assigned to either Prolonged Exposure Therapy (PE) [now called Prolonged Exposure Therapy for PTSD for Adults (PE)] or treatment as usual (TAU). Measures utilized include the Mini International Neuropsychiatric Interview, the PTSD Symptom Scale—Interview (PSS-I), the Beck Depression Inventory (BDI), the Social Adjustment Scale (SAS), the State-Trait Anxiety Inventory (STAI), and the Posttraumatic Cognitions Inventory (PTCI). Results indicate that posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) was significantly lower in patients who received PE in comparison to patients who received TAU. Limitations include sample size, and the vast majority of the participants were men.

Length of controlled postintervention follow-up: 12 months.

Resick, P. A., Williams, L. F., Suvak, M. K., Monson, C. M., Gradus, J. L. (2012). Long-term outcomes of cognitive–behavioral treatments for posttraumatic stress disorder among female rape survivors. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 80(2), 201-210. https://doi.org/10.1037/a0026602

Type of Study: Randomized controlled trial
Number of Participants: 144

Population:

  • Age — Mean=32 years
  • Race/Ethnicity — 71% White, 25% African American, and 4% Other
  • Gender — 100% Female
  • Status — Participants were female rape victims.

Location/Institution: Not specified

Summary: (To include basic study design, measures, results, and notable limitations)
This study uses the same sample as Resick et al. (2002). The purpose of the study was to conduct a long-term follow-up assessment of participants which compared Cognitive Processing Therapy (CPT) with Prolonged Exposure Therapy (PE) [now called Prolonged Exposure Therapy for PTSD for Adults (PE)] Participants were randomly assigned to PE or CPT. Measures utilized include the Clinician-Administered PTSD Scale (CAPS), the Structured Interview for DSM–IV—Patient Version (SCID), the Standardized Trauma Interview, the PTSD Symptom Scale, the Structured Clinical Interview for DSM–IV, the Beck Depression Inventory, the Trauma-Related Guilt Inventory (TRGI), and the Expectancy of Therapeutic Outcome Scale. Results indicate that substantial decreases in symptoms due to PE were maintained throughout the follow-up period, as evidenced by little change over time from posttreatment through follow-up. No significant differences emerged during the follow-up between the PE conditions and maintenance of improvements could not be attributed to further therapy or medications. Limitations include poor generalizability due to ethnicity and gender.

Length of controlled postintervention follow-up: 5-10 years (mean=6 years).

Additional References

Foa, E. B. (2011). Prolonged Exposure Therapy: Past, present, and future. Depression and Anxiety, 28, 1043-1047. https://doi.org/10.1002/da.20907

Foa, E. B., Hembree, E. A., & Rothbaum, B. O. (2007). Prolonged Exposure Therapy for PTSD: Emotional processing of traumatic experiences – Therapist guide. Oxford University Press.

Rothbaum, B. O., Foa, E. B., & Hembree, E. A. (2007). Reclaiming your life from a traumatic experience: Workbook. Oxford University Press.

Contact Information

Sandy Capaldi, PsyD
Agency/Affiliation: Center for the Treatment and Study of Anxiety, University of Pennsylvania
Website: www.med.upenn.edu/ctsa/workshops_pet.html
Email:
Phone: (215) 746-5705
Fax: (215) 746-3311

Date Research Evidence Last Reviewed by CEBC: April 2021

Date Program Content Last Reviewed by Program Staff: May 2018

Date Program Originally Loaded onto CEBC: July 2013