Topic: Trauma Treatment (Adult)
Definition for Trauma Treatment (Adult):
Trauma Treatment (Adult) is defined by the CEBC as treatment developed to assist adults in coping with the effects that come from experiencing trauma. The trauma(s) may have occurred at any point in the individual's life and may have occurred once or many times. The trauma(s) may be witnessed or experienced and can occur in many forms including physical abuse, sexual abuse or assault, neglect, domestic violence, community violence, war, and natural disasters. Many parents and caretakers involved in the child welfare system experienced trauma themselves in their childhood or adolescence and have never received treatment related to these experiences. This parental/caregiver trauma history can hinder proper family functioning, social support, nurturing, and attachment. Research finds that more than half of all adults in the United States will experience a traumatic event at some point in their lives. Though not all of these individuals will require formal intervention due to differences in resiliency (i.e., the ability to handle traumatic situations), some may require treatment to mitigate negative outcomes.
- Target population: Adults who have experienced trauma
- Services/types that fit: Typically outpatient services, either individual or group
- Delivered by: Mental health professionals
- In order to be included: Program must specifically target trauma treatment as a goal
- In order to be rated: There must be research evidence (as specified by the Scientific Rating Scale) that examines trauma-related outcomes, such changes in symptom levels, behaviors, and/or functioning.
Programs in this Topic Area
The programs listed below have been reviewed by the CEBC and, if appropriate, been rated using the Scientific Rating Scale.
Four Programs with a Scientific Rating of 1 - Well-Supported by Research Evidence:
- Cognitive Processing Therapy (CPT)Adults who have experienced a traumatic event and are currently suffering from the symptoms of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and/...
- Eye Movement Desensitization and Reprocessing (EMDR) [Trauma Treatment (Adult)]Adults who have experienced trauma and may experience posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD), post-traumatic stress, phobias, and other mental health disorders
- Narrative Exposure Therapy (NET)Adult survivors of organized violence, war, conflict, torture, man-made and natural disasters, civil trauma as well as childhood sexual/physical ...
- Prolonged Exposure Therapy for PTSD for Adults (PE)Adults with a variety of traumas such as combat, sexual assault, car accidents, violent crimes, and acts of terrorism
Two Programs with a Scientific Rating of 2 - Supported by Research Evidence:
- Cognitive Behavioral Therapy for Acute Stress Disorder (CBT for ASD) – non-responderAdults who experienced a trauma less than 4 weeks ago and are experiencing acute stress disorder
- Seeking Safety (Adult version)Adults who have a history of trauma and/or substance abuse
Eight Programs with a Scientific Rating of 3 - Promising Research Evidence:
- Beyond Violence (BV)Women in criminal justice settings (jails, prisons, and community corrections) with histories of anger, aggression and/or violence
- Brief Eclectic Psychotherapy for PTSD (BEPP)Adult patients suffering from posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD); developed for police officers, now used for all kinds of patients with ...
- Center for Mind-Body Medicine (CMBM) Small Group Model for Adults, TheThe Center for Mind-Body Medicine (CMBM) Small Group Model for AdultsAdults who have experienced psychological trauma though it can be used with adults suffering from depression, anxiety, stress, or chronic ...
- Creating ChangeAdults ages 18 and above who have experienced trauma and addiction
- Progressive Counting (PC)Adults who have experienced trauma; has been used with teens and children ages 6 and up
- Skills Training in Affective and Interpersonal Regulation plus Modified Prolonged Exposure (STAIR/MPE) – non-responderAdult survivors of childhood or chronic interpersonal violence
- Trauma Affect Regulation: Guide for Education and Therapy for Adults (TARGET)Adults with posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD)
- Trauma Recovery and Empowerment Model (TREM)Women who have a history of sexual, physical, and/or emotional abuse and can have severe mental health problems and ...
Six Programs with a Scientific Rating of NR - Not able to be Rated:
- Healing Trauma+: A Brief Intervention for Women and Gender-Diverse People (HT+)
[Healing Trauma]Adults who experience the world from a female perspective and have experienced trauma
- Helping Women Recover & Beyond Trauma (HWR/BT)Adult women with addictive disorders and a trauma history (e.g., abuse, domestic violence, community violence, etc.)
- Individual Intensive Trauma Therapy (IITT)Adults (ages 18 to 80) with trauma-related disorders that do not have active substance abuse disorders
- Intergenerational Trauma Treatment Model, The (ITTM)The Intergenerational Trauma Treatment ModelCaregivers and their children ages 3-18 burdened by the symptoms and behaviors of unresolved impact of historical or recent traumatic ...
- Risking Connection®Organizations with professionals and paraprofessionals, and others who work with survivors (children, adolescents, and adults) of traumatic life events, especially ...
- Trauma Model TherapyAdults with severe childhood trauma and complex comorbidity; program has been used for other mental health disorders as well.
Why was this topic chosen by the Advisory Committee?
The Trauma Treatment (Adult) topic area is relevant to child welfare because parents and caregivers involved with the child welfare system may need assistance in coping with the effects that come from personally experiencing trauma. The trauma may be the result of an event that occurred at any point in the individualâ€™s life, once or many times, or as one of many different traumatic events over time. Many child-welfare-involved parents and caretakers experienced trauma themselves in their childhood or adolescence and have never received treatment related to these experiences. As an adult, the traumatic event may also be experienced or witnessed (vicarious) and can occur in many forms including domestic violence, community violence, sexual assault or abuse, physical abuse, neglect, war, and natural disasters. This parental/caregiver trauma history can hinder proper family functioning, social support, nurturing, and attachment. Research finds that more than half of all adults in the United States will have experienced a traumatic event at some point in their lives. Though not all of these individuals will require formal intervention due to differences in resiliency (i.e., the ability to handle traumatic situations), some may require treatment to mitigate negative outcomes. Better understanding of the impact of adult trauma, proper screening, and the identification of appropriate interventions may lead to improved outcomes for children and families.
Debra Zanders-Willis, Director
Child Welfare Services
San Diego, CA
Joanne L. Davis, PhD
Associate Professor of Psychology
Co-Director of the Tulsa Institute for Trauma, Abuse, and Neglect
Criminal Justice & Criminology Department, University of Tulsa