Screening and Assessment Tools for Child Welfare
Description / Purpose:
Assessment of parenting behavior for families with young children. The KIPS focuses on 12 behaviors believed to be related to effective parenting. These are:
- Sensitivity of Responses
- Supports Emotions
- Physical Interaction
- Involvement in Child's Activities
- Open to Child's Agenda
- Engagement in Language Experiences
- Reasonable Expectations
- Adapts Strategies to Child
- Limits & Consequences
- Supportive Directions
- Promotes Exploration & Curiosity
Target Population: Families with children 2 to 71 months of age.
Intended Users: Family services practitioners.
Time to Administer: 20 minutes for observation and 10 minutes for scoring.
Completed By: Family services worker.
Modalities Available: Paper and pencil.
Scoring Information: Scoring materials for the KIPS are available through the Comfort Consults website
Languages Available: English — the rating for the measure is based solely on the English version of the measure.
Training Requirements for Intended Users: The KIPS requires online training and annual recertification. Personal training is also available.
Availability: The KIPS may be ordered through the Comfort Consults website.
- Company: Comfort Consults LLC.
- Website: www.comfortconsults.com
- Name: Marilee Comfort, PhD
- Email: firstname.lastname@example.org
- Phone: (610) 455-1463
Summary of Relevant Psychometric Research
This assessment has received the Assessment Rating of "A – Reliability and Validity Demonstrated" based on the published, peer-reviewed research available. The assessment must have 2 or more published, peer-reviewed studies that demonstrated that the measure is reliable and valid. Please see the Assessment Rating Scale for more information.
Comfort, M., & Gordon, P. R. (2006). The Keys to Interactive Parenting Scale (KIPS): A practical observational assessment of parenting behavior. NHSA Dialog: A Research-to-Practice Journal for the Early Intervention Field, 9(1), 22-48.
Participants — 101 caregiver child dyads.
Race/Ethnicity — 59% African American, 27% Caucasian, 9% Latino, 4% Asian
The KIPS was used with a sample of caregiver child dyads, including some parents in a residential substance abuse program for mothers; fathers and stepfathers in a study of a Head Start program; and two community samples used to design trainings. Inter-rater reliability was assessed with two coders, showing high inter-rater agreement. Construct validity was measured by looking at the association of the KIPS with the Parent Child Interaction Scale (PCIS). Analysis found that the KIPS was associated with the Quality subscale of the PCIS, but not with other subscales. Researchers also assessed face validity through provider focus groups and by comparing KIPS items to lists of behaviors important to assess parenting that were generated by participants at national Child Welfare conferences. In a second study, 20 family service providers were recruited from Parents as Teachers, and Early Head Start for a field test. Results showed that the practitioners could reliably use the assessment.
Comfort, M., Gordon, P. R., & Naples, D. (2011). KIPS: An evidence-based tool for assessing parenting strengths and needs in diverse families, Infants & Young Children, 24(1), 56-74.
Participants — Construct Validity Study - 397 parents/caregivers Criterion Validity Study – 130 parents/caregivers
Race/Ethnicity — Construct Validity Study - 52% African Americans, 33% Whites, 9% Latino, and 6% Other Criterion Validity Study – 42% African Americans, 40% Whites, 12% Latino, and 7% Other
The study aimed to examine the construct validity of Keys to Interactive Parenting Scale (KIPS) with diverse families in three racial/ethnic groups and to assess its criterion validity with two well-established measures. Sixty-seven family support workers (FSWs) volunteered to participate from 11 Healthy Families Virginia (HFV) programs across Virginia. Families listed in their case loads were randomly selected and invited to participate. The FSWs filmed 20 minutes of free play between each participating parent (or caregiver) and his or her child, ages 2 months through 5 years and 11 months, in the home or familiar community setting. After the video, the parent completed two study questionnaires, the Family Info Form and the Knowledge of Child Development Scale (KCDS). The FSW completed the Staff Rating of Caregiver Engagement (SRCE) and provided a copy of the child’s recent Ages and Stages Questionnaire (ASQ), completed within 3 weeks of the video session. Comparison of KIPS mean scores indicated no significant difference by parent race/ethnicity. KIPS mean scores were positively associated with caregiver age (adults > teens), marital status (married > single), and education (college > high school or less). The results of the test-retest study demonstrated high correlation of KIPS mean scores. For the construct validity study, KIPS scores correlated significantly with the FSW’s rating of caregiver engagement in services, but not with other service factors including months enrolled in the program, frequency of visits, and home visit completion rate. Significant correlations of KIPS mean scores also were found with parent knowledge of child development and behavioral expectations. For the criterion validity study, a subgroup of 130 families volunteered to participate in two additional assessments, the Nursing Child Assessment Teaching Scale (NCATS) and Home Observation for Measurement of the Environment (HOME). The results showed significant positive correlations of KIPS mean scores with NCATS and HOME subscale scores.
Date Reviewed: April 2011 (Originally reviewed in June 2009)