Topic: Trauma Treatment - Client-Level Interventions (Child & Adolescent)
Definition for Trauma Treatment - Client-Level Interventions (Child & Adolescent):
Trauma Treatment - Client-Level Interventions (Child & Adolescent) are defined by the CEBC as interventions designed to help an individual process a trauma or multiple traumas they have experienced and learn how to cope with the feelings associated with the experience (e.g., fear, posttraumatic stress, anxiety, depression, etc.). Click here to see the overall Trauma Treatment (Child & Adolescent) topic area page.
Please note that interventions for anxiety that do not include a Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD) or trauma focus can be found in the Anxiety Treatment topic area.
- Target population: Children and adolescents who have experienced trauma. A diagnosis of Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD) is not required.
- Services/types that fit: Typically outpatient services, such as individual, family, or group
- Delivered by: Mental health professionals
- In order to be included: Program must specifically target trauma treatment as a goal
- In order to be rated: There must be research evidence (as specified by Scientific Rating Scale) that examines trauma-related outcomes, such as changes in symptom levels, behaviors, and/or functioning
Programs in this Topic Area
The programs listed below have been reviewed by the CEBC and, if appropriate, been rated using the Scientific Rating Scale.
Three Programs with a Scientific Rating of 1 - Well-Supported by Research Evidence:
- Eye Movement Desensitization and Reprocessing (EMDR) [Trauma Treatment - Client-Level Interventions (Child & Adolescent)]Children and adolescents who have experienced trauma; research has been conducted on posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD), posttraumatic stress, phobias, and ...
- Prolonged Exposure Therapy for Adolescents (PE-A)Adolescents who have experienced a trauma (e.g., sexual assault, car accident, violent crimes, etc). The program has also been ...
- Trauma-Focused Cognitive-Behavioral Therapy (TF-CBT)Children with a known trauma history who are experiencing significant posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) symptoms, whether or not they meet ...
One Program with a Scientific Rating of 2 - Supported by Research Evidence:
- Child-Parent Psychotherapy (CPP)Children age 0-5, who have experienced a trauma, and their caregivers
17 Programs with a Scientific Rating of 3 - Promising Research Evidence:
- Alternatives for Families: A Cognitive-Behavioral Therapy (AF-CBT)
[Abuse-Focused Cognitive Behavioral Therapy]Caregivers who are emotionally or physically aggressive or abusive with their children, children who experience behavioral dysfunction, especially aggression, or ...
- Bounce BackChildren in elementary school grades Kindergarten through 5th grade (ages 5-11) who have experienced traumatic events
- Child and Family Traumatic Stress Intervention (CFTSI)Children ages 7-18 recently exposed to a potentially traumatic event, or having recently disclosed physical or sexual abuse, and endorsing ...
- Cognitive Behavioral Intervention for Trauma in Schools (CBITS)3rd through 8th grade students who screened positive for exposure to a traumatic event and symptoms of posttraumatic stress disorder ...
- Combined Parent-Child Cognitive-Behavioral Therapy (CPC-CBT)Children ages 3-17 and their parents (or caregivers) in families where parents engage in a continuum of coercive parenting strategies ...
- Cue-Centered Treatment (CCT)Youth ages 8-18 with a chronic history of trauma, adversity, and ongoing stress
- Fairy Tale Model (Treating Problem Behaviors: A Trauma-Informed Approach)Teens (13 to 18 years of age) with emotional and behavior problems
- Grief and Trauma Intervention (GTI) for ChildrenChildren who are experiencing grief and posttraumatic stress
- KIDNET – non-responderRefugee children suffering from posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD)
- Preschool PTSD Treatment (PPT)3-6 year old children with posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) symptoms
- Risk Reduction through Family Therapy (RRFT)Trauma-exposed adolescents aged 13-18 years who experience co-occurring trauma-related mental health problems (e.g., posttraumatic stress disorder [PTSD], depression), substance ...
- Seeking Safety (Adolescent version)Adolescents with a history of trauma and/or substance abuse
- SITCAP-ARTAt-risk and adjudicated youth, ages 12-17, with a history of trauma and/or loss
- Stepped Care TF-CBT – non-responderYoung children experiencing posttraumatic stress symptoms
- Trauma Affect Regulation: Guide for Education and Therapy for Adolescents (TARGET-A)Youth ages 10-18 with Posttraumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD)
- Trauma-Focused Coping (TFC)
[Multi-modality Trauma Treatment (MMTT)]Children and adolescents in schools who have suffered a traumatic exposure (e.g., disaster, violence, murder, suicide, fire, accidents)
- Trauma-Grief Component Therapy for Adolescents (TGCT-A)Adolescent males or females aged 12-20 from a broad spectrum of socioeconomic, religious, cultural and ethnic groups who have been ...
17 Programs with a Scientific Rating of NR - Not able to be Rated:
- Attachment, Regulation, and Competency (ARC) [Trauma Treatment - Client-Level Interventions (Child & Adolescent)]Children/adolescents/young adults (0-21 years) who have experienced chronic/complex trauma and their caregiving systems (e.g., primary, resource, ...
- FamilyLiveCaregivers (e.g., biological, foster, relative, adoptive) of children from birth to18 years of age whose trauma histories and present ...
- Forensically Sensitive Therapy (FST)Children 3-17 years of age who have experienced sexual abuse trauma
- I Feel Better Now! Trauma Intervention ProgramAt-risk children ages 6-12 with a history of trauma or loss
- Integrative Treatment of Complex Trauma for Adolescents (ITCT-A) – non-responderAdolescents who have experienced multiple traumas
- Intergenerational Trauma Treatment Model, The (ITTM)The Intergenerational Trauma Treatment ModelChildren ages 3-18 and their parents/caregivers burdened by the impact, symptoms and behaviors of traumatic events or unacceptable living ...
- Psychological First Aid (PFA) – non-responderChildren and adolescents in the immediate aftermath of a disaster or terrorism
- Real Life Heroes (RLH): Resiliency-focused Treatment for Children and Families with Traumatic StressSchool-age children between ages 6-12 and adolescents who have experienced traumatic events, have a breakdown in emotionally supportive relationships, and ...
- Somatic Experiencing® (SE®) ModelChildren and adolescents who experience trauma, are exposed to natural disasters, or experience chronic pain; also used with adults
- Strengthening Family Coping Resources (SFCR)Families living in traumatic contexts who are vulnerable
- Structured Psychotherapy for Adolescents Responding to Chronic Stress (SPARCS)Traumatized adolescents with a history of exposure to chronic interpersonal trauma (such as ongoing physical abuse) and/or separate types ...
- Support for Students Exposed to Trauma (SSET)Youth in late elementary school through early high school (ages 10-16) who have experienced traumatic events and who are experiencing ...
- TIMBER (Trauma Interventions using Mindfulness Based Extinction and Re-consolidation)Children and adolescents with trauma or anxiety or depression related symptoms; intervention also used with adults
- Trauma Resiliency Model (TRM) – non-responderChildren and adolescents who have experienced trauma
- Trauma Systems Therapy (TST)The combination of a traumatized child/adolescent who, when exposed to trauma reminders, has difficulty regulating their emotions and behavior ...
- Trauma-Focused Integrated Play Therapy (TFIPT)Young sexually abused children who may be victims of other forms of trauma as well, including physical abuse, neglect, witnessing ...
- Voices: A Program of Self-Discovery and Empowerment for GirlsFemales 12 - 24 years old with substance abuse and/or trauma
Why was this topic chosen by the Advisory Committee?
The Trauma Treatment - Client-Level Interventions (Child & Adolescent) topic area is relevant to child welfare because the effect of the trauma that abuse and neglect causes to children is detrimental and pervasive. While it is known that research exists on the most effective ways to treat traumatized children, the child welfare community has not widely focused on this research. Child welfare courts and counties regularly refer children to treatment, but have little information on the therapeutic methods being used by individual practitioners or agencies that provide treatment to traumatized children. If counties and courts are aware of the practices that have shown to be most effective for managing the impact of physical and sexual abuse, as well as exposure to domestic violence and neglect, referrals can be made to agencies that utilize these practices. This would increase the safety and well-being of the children they serve. In addition, the selection of effective therapies could have an impact on assisting children to adjust and stabilize in out-of-home placement, thereby impacting permanency.
Deborah Reeves, MSW
Former CEBC Advisory Committee Member
When the CEBC launched in 2006, Trauma Treatment (Child & Adolescent) was one of its two original topic areas. Benjamin E. Saunders, PhD, was the topic expert and was involved in identifying and rating any of the programs with an original load date of June 2006 (as found on the bottom of the program’s page on the CEBC). The topic area has grown over the years and in 2016, the topic area was split and expanded. All of the Trauma Treatment - Client-Level Interventions (Child & Adolescent) added since 2006 were identified by CEBC staff, the Scientific Panel, and/or the Advisory Committee. For these programs, Dr. Saunders was not involved in identifying or rating them.