DIRFloortime®

Note: The DIRFloortime® program was not responsive to the CEBC's inquiry. The following information was obtained from publicly available sources.

About This Program

Target Population: Children with a wide range of emotional, sensory, regulatory, motor, learning, and developmental challenges including having an autism spectrum disorder

Program Overview

DIRFloortime® is designed to help children with a wide range of emotional, sensory, regulatory, motor, learning, and developmental challenges including having an autism spectrum disorder. DIRFloortime® is an intervention that is used to promote an individual's development through a respectful, playful, joyful, and engaging process. It is designed to use the power of relationships and human connections to promote the development of the capacities for self-regulation; engagement; communication; shared social problem solving; and creative, organized, and reflective thinking and reasoning. It is used by teachers, occupational therapists, speech therapists, mental health professionals, parents, and many others that care for individuals with developmental challenges or other related needs.

Logic Model

The program representative did not provide information about a Logic Model for DIRFloortime®.

Manuals and Training

Publicly available information indicates there is some training available for this program.
See contact info below.

Relevant Published, Peer-Reviewed Research

Child Welfare Outcome: Child/Family Well-Being

Pajareya, K., & Nopmaneejumruslers, K. (2011). A pilot randomized controlled trial of DIR/Floortime™ parent training intervention for pre-school children with autistic spectrum disorders. Autism, 15(5), 563–577. https://doi.org/10.1177/1362361310386502

Type of Study: Randomized controlled trial
Number of Participants: 32

Population:

  • Age — Children: 24–72 months (Mean=51.5–56.6 months); Parents: Not specified
  • Race/Ethnicity — Children: Not specified; Parents: Not specified
  • Gender — Children: 28 Males and 4 Females; Parents: Not specified
  • Status — Participants were children who met clinical criteria for autistic disorders.

Location/Institution: Thailand

Summary: (To include basic study design, measures, results, and notable limitations)
The purpose of this study was to test the efficacy of adding home-based Developmental, Individual-Difference, Relationship-Based(DIR)/Floortime™ [now called DIRFloortime®] intervention to the routine care of preschool children with autistic spectrum disorder. Participants were randomly assigned to typical treatment or treatment groups which added DIR/Floortime™ to typical treatment. Measures utilized include the Functional Emotional Assessment Scale (FEAS), the Childhood Autism Rating Scale, and the Functional Emotional Questionnaire. Results indicate after the parents added home-based DIR/Floortime™ intervention at an average of 15.2 hours/week for three months, the DIR/Floortime™ group made significantly greater gains in all three measures employed in the study. Limitations include the results could have been affected by involving families that were particularly interested in learning this new intervention, there was some contamination with varying types and amounts of interventions in the control group, small sample size, and lack of follow up.

Length of postintervention follow-up: None.

Pajareya, K., & Nopmaneejumruslers, K. (2012). A one-year prospective follow-up study of a DIR/Floortime™ parent training intervention for preschool children with autistic spectrum disorders. Journal of the Medical Association of Thailand, 95(9), 1184–1193. http://www.jmatonline.com/index.php/jmat/article/view/2107#

Type of Study: One-group pretest–posttest study
Number of Participants: 34

Population:

  • Age — Children: 2–6 years (Mean=50.6 months); Parents: Not specified
  • Race/Ethnicity — Children: Not specified; Parents: Not specified
  • Gender — Children: 30 Males and 4 Females; Parents: Not specified
  • Status — Participants were children diagnosed with autistic spectrum disorders.

Location/Institution: The National Institute for Child and Family Development

Summary: (To include basic study design, measures, results, and notable limitations)
The purpose of this study was to determine the results of 1-year Developmental, Individual-Difference, Relationship-Based (DIR)/Floortime™ [now called DIRFloortime®] parent training in developmental stimulation of children with autistic spectrum disorder (ASD). Parents were encouraged to deliver 1:1 interaction according to their child’s developmental level, as they were modeled and coached. Measures utilized include the Functional Emotional Assessment Scale (FEAS), the Functional Emotional Developmental Questionnaire (FEDQ), and the Childhood Autism Rating Scale (CARS). Results indicate adding home-based DIR/Floortime™ intervention at the average of 14.2 hours per week for one year could help 47% of the children to make good improvement, with 23% making fair progression, and the last 29% making poor progression. There were significant increases in children’s total FEAS, and FEDQ scores and there was significant decrease in the CARS scores. It showed that fidelity of the parents, severity of the children, and baseline developmental status might affect the outcome. Limitations include lack of control group or randomization, small sample size, and generalizability due to most parents being socially advantaged, well-educated, and having one parent who was not working outside the home.

Length of postintervention follow-up: None.

Liao, S., Hwang, Y., Chen, Y., Lee, P., Chen, S., & Lin, L. (2014). Home-based DIR/Floortime™ intervention program for preschool children with autism spectrum disorders: Preliminary findings. Physical & Occupational Therapy in Pediatrics, 34(4), 356–367. https://doi.org/10.3109/01942638.2014.918074

Type of Study: One-group pretest–posttest study
Number of Participants: 11 boys and their mothers

Population:

  • Age — Children: 45–69 months (Mean=55.9 months); Parents: Mean=35.7 years
  • Race/Ethnicity — Children: Not specified; Mothers: Not specified
  • Gender — Children: 100% Male; Parents: 100% Female
  • Status — Participants were children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD).

Location/Institution: Taiwan

Summary: (To include basic study design, measures, results, and notable limitations)
The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of the developmental, individual difference, and relationship-based DIR/Floortime™ [now called DIRFloortime®] home-based intervention program on social interaction and adaptive functioning of children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD). Mothers were instructed on the principles of the approach by an occupational therapist. All children and their mothers completed the 10-week home-based intervention program, undergoing an average of 109.7 hours of intervention. Measures utilized include the Functional Emotional Assessment Scale (FEAS), the Vineland Adaptive Behavior Scales (VABS-II), and the Parenting Stress Index-Short Form (PSI/SF). Results indicate children made significant changes in mean scores for emotional functioning, communication, and daily living skills. Moreover, the mothers perceived positive changes in their parent-child interactions. Limitations include a sample of convenience, lack of a control group, lack of randomization, lack of follow-up, and the effect of maturation and other services and supports were not controlled.

Length of postintervention follow-up: None.

Additional References

No reference materials are currently available for DIRFloortime®.

Contact Information

Jeffrey J. Guenzel, MA, LPC
Website: www.icdl.com
Email:
Phone: (301) 304-8824

Date Research Evidence Last Reviewed by CEBC: February 2021

Date Program Content Last Reviewed by Program Staff: June 2021

Date Program Originally Loaded onto CEBC: June 2021