Resourceful Adolescent Program-Adolescent (RAP-A)

Note: The Resourceful Adolescent Program-Adolescent (RAP-A) program was not responsive to the CEBC's inquiry. The following information was obtained from publicly available sources.

About This Program

Target Population: Students who are 12 to 15 years old

Program Overview

Resourceful Adolescent Program-Adolescent (RAP-A) is a universal prevention school-based program for 12 to 15 year olds that aims to improve the coping skills of teenagers. It is a program within the Resourceful Adolescent Program (RAP) which was developed to build resilience and promote positive mental health in teenagers. The program specifically aims to prevent teenage depression and related difficulties. RAP aims to increase the psychological resilience or resourcefulness of young people and draws on research of successful treatments for adolescent depression and the known psychosocial risk and protective factors at the individual, family, and school level. RAP also consists of two other components/programs that promote the individual, family, and school protective factors respectively: RAP-P for parents and RAP-T for teachers. The programs aim to prevent the development of future problems by promoting a range of protective factors. The three components of the program can be run independently or together. They are designed to be useful to all teenagers, and not only those specifically at risk for depression. In addition, RAP-A and RAP-P also have adaptations that meet the specific needs of indigenous communities. RAP-P and RAP-T have not been reviewed by the CEBC, therefore the above rating is only for RAP-A.

Education and Training

Education and Training Resources

Publicly available information indicates there is a manual that describes how to deliver this program, and there is some training available for this program.
See contact info below.

Relevant Published, Peer-Reviewed Research

Child Welfare Outcome: Child/Family Well-Being

Shochet, I. M., Dadds, M. R., Holland, D., Whitefield, K., Harnett, P. H., & Osgarby, S. M. (2001). The efficacy of a universal school-based program to prevent adolescent depression. Journal of Clinical Child Psychology, 30, 303–315. https://doi.org/10.1207/S15374424JCCP3003_3

Type of Study: Randomized controlled trial
Number of Participants: 260

Population:

  • Age — 12–15 years (Mean=13.49 years)
  • Race/Ethnicity — Not specified
  • Gender — 53.46% Female and 46.54% Male
  • Status — Participants were Year 9 secondary school students.

Location/Institution: Brisbane, Australia

Summary: (To include comparison groups, outcomes, measures, notable limitations)
This study evaluated whether Resourceful Adolescent Program-Adolescent (RAP-A), designed to prevent depression in adolescents, could be effectively implemented within the constraints of the school environment. Students were assigned to 1 of 3 groups: (a) RAP-A, an 11-session school-based resilience building program, as part of the school curriculum; (b) Resourceful Adolescent Program–Family (RAP–F), the same program as in RAP-A, but in which each student’s parents were also invited to participate in a 3-session parent program; and (c) Adolescent Watch, a comparison group in which adolescents simply completed the measures. Measures utilized included the Child Depression Inventory (CDI), the Reynolds Adolescent Depression Scale (RADS), and the Beck Hopelessness Scale (BHS). Results indicated adolescents in either of the RAP programs reported significantly lower levels of depressive symptomatology and hopelessness at postintervention and 10-month follow-up, compared with those in the comparison group. Adolescents also reported high satisfaction with the program. Limitations include reliance on self-reported measures of depression, small sample size, and length of follow-up.

Length of postintervention follow-up: 10 months.

Muris, P., Bogie, N., & Hoogsteder, A. (2001). Effects of an early intervention group program for anxious and depressed adolescents: A pilot study. Psychological Reports, 88(2), 481–482. https://doi.org/10.2466/pr0.2001.88.2.481

Type of Study: One-group pretest–posttest
Number of Participants: 8

Population:

  • Age — 13–18 years
  • Race/Ethnicity — Not specified
  • Gender — 5 Female and 3 Male
  • Status — Participants were adolescents with depressive symptoms.

Location/Institution: The Netherlands

Summary: (To include comparison groups, outcomes, measures, notable limitations)
The purpose of this study was to test the efficacy of the Resourceful Adolescent Program-Adolescent (RAP-A). Measures utilized include the Spence Children's Anxiety Scale, the Children's Depression Inventory, and the Self-efficacy Questionnaire. Results compared preintervention and postintervention data and showed reductions in anxiety and depression scores and a concomitant increase in adolescents' self-efficacy. Limitations include lack of randomization of participants, small sample size, reliance on self-reported measures, and length of follow-up.

Length of postintervention follow-up: 1 week.

Merry, S., McDowell, H., Wild, C. J., Bir, J., & Cunliffe, R. (2004). A randomized placebo-controlled trial of a school-based depression prevention program. Journal of the American Academy of Child & Adolescent Psychiatry, 43(5), 538–547. https://doi.org/10.1097/00004583-200405000-00007

Type of Study: Randomized controlled trial
Number of Participants: 392

Population:

  • Age — 13–15 years
  • Race/Ethnicity — Not specified
  • Gender — Not specified
  • Status — Participants were adolescents with high anxious and/or depressive symptoms.

Location/Institution: Two schools in Auckland, New Zealand

Summary: (To include comparison groups, outcomes, measures, notable limitations)
The purpose of this study was to conduct a placebo-controlled study of the effectiveness of a universal school-based depression prevention program. Students from two schools were randomized to Resourceful Adolescent Program - Kiwi (RAP-Kiwi) [same overall structure as Resourceful Adolescent Program – Adolescent (RAP-A)] and placebo programs run by teachers. Measures utilized included the Reynolds Adolescent Depression Scale (RADS) and the Beck Depression Inventory II (BDI-II). Results indicated that immediately after the intervention, depression scores were reduced significantly more by RAP-Kiwi than by placebo. Results also confirmed significant clinical benefit with an absolute risk reduction of 3% with the “number needed to treat” for short-term benefit of 33. Group differences in depression scores averaged across time to 18 months were significant on RADS but not on BDI-II. Retention rates were 91% at 6 months and 72% at 18 months. Limitations include the study was “singleblind” randomized controlled trial, using teachers who have no background of cognitive-behavioral therapy to deliver the program, and the study would also have been strengthened by depression ratings from independent evaluators blind to intervention status.

Length of postintervention follow-up: 6, 12, and 18 months.

Rivet-Duval, E., Heriot, S., & Hunt, C. (2011). Preventing adolescent depression in Mauritius: A universal school-based program. Child and Adolescent Mental Health, 16(2), 86–91. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1475-3588.2010.00584.x

Type of Study: Randomized controlled trial
Number of Participants: 160

Population:

  • Age — 12–16 years (Mean=13.7–14.2 years)
  • Race/Ethnicity — 59 Creole, 50 Hindu, 24 Muslim, 22 Chinese, and 5 European
  • Gender — 50% Male and 50% Females
  • Status — Participants were adolescents with high anxious and/or depressive symptoms.

Location/Institution: Mauritius

Summary: (To include comparison groups, outcomes, measures, notable limitations)
This study evaluated the efficacy of the Resourceful Adolescent Program–Adolescent (RAP-A) depression program implemented by school teachers. Adolescents were randomly assigned to the RAP-A Group or wait-list. Measures utilized included the Reynolds Adolescent Depression Scale-2 (RADS-2), the Beck Hopelessness Scale (BHS) the Hopelessness Scale for Children, the Youth Coping Index (YCI), and the Rosenberg Self-Esteem Scale (RSE). Results indicated decreased depressive symptoms for the intervention condition were found post-intervention, but not at follow-up. Significant changes in self-esteem and coping skills were seen both postintervention and at the follow-up. Limitations include none of the measures had been previously used or validated in samples from Mauritius, small sample size, reliance on self-reported measures, and length of follow-up.

Length of postintervention follow-up: 6 months.

Stallard, P., Phillips, R., Montgomery, A. A., Spears, M., Anderson, R., Taylor, J., Araya, R., Lewis, G., Ukoumunne, O. C., Millings, A., Georgiou, L., Cook, E., & Sayal, K. (2013). A cluster randomised controlled trial to determine the clinical effectiveness and cost-effectiveness of classroom-based cognitive-behavioural therapy (CBT) in reducing symptoms of depression in high-risk adolescents. Health Technology Assessment (Winchester, England), 17(47). https://doi.org/10.3310/hta17470

Type of Study: Randomized controlled trial
Number of Participants: 5,030

Population:

  • Age — 12–16 years
  • Race/Ethnicity — 4,764 White and 266 Non-White
  • Gender — 2,931 Males and 2,099 Females
  • Status — Participants were high-risk adolescents with depression.

Location/Institution: 66 nondenominational comprehensive secondary schools in Bath and North East Somerset, Bristol, Wiltshire, Nottingham City and Nottinghamshire County

Summary: (To include comparison groups, outcomes, measures, notable limitations)
The aims of this study are to investigate the clinical effectiveness and cost-effectiveness of Resourceful Adolescent Programme (RAP-UK) [same overall structure as Resourceful Adolescent Program – Adolescent (RAP-A)] in reducing symptoms of depression in high-risk adolescents. RAP-UK was compared with usual Personal, Social, and Health Education (PSHE) curriculum and attention control PSHE groups. Measures utilized included the Short Mood and Feelings Questionnaire (SMFQ), the Children's Automatic Thoughts Scale (CATS), the Rosenberg Self-Esteem Inventory, the Revised Child Anxiety and Depression Scale (RCADS), the School Connectedness Scale, the Attachment Questionnaire for Children, the Olweus Bully/Victim Questionnaire, the European Quality of Life-5 Dimensions (EQ-5D), the Client Service Receipt Inventory (CSRI), and the Family Affluence Scale. Results indicated SMFQ scores had decreased for high-risk adolescents in all trial arms at 12 months, but there was no difference between arms [RAP-UK vs. usual PSHE; classroom-based RAP-UK vs. attention control PSHE]. Costs of interventions per child were estimated at £41.96 for classroom-based CBT and £34.45 for attention control PSHE. Limitations include participating schools had a greater percentage of white students, were more academically able, and had fewer students eligible for free school meals than UK national averages and reliance on self-reported measures.

Length of postintervention follow-up: 12 months.

Rose, K., Hawes, D. J., & Hunt, C. J. (2014). Randomized controlled trial of a friendship skills intervention on adolescent depressive symptoms. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 82(3), 510–520. https://doi.org/10.1037/a0035827

Type of Study: Randomized controlled trial
Number of Participants: 210

Population:

  • Age — 9–14 years (Mean=12.22 years)
  • Race/Ethnicity — 64.8% Caucasian, 17.1% Asian, 11.4%
  • Gender — 56% Male and 44% Female
  • Status — Participants were adolescents in 6th and 7th grade secondary schools.

Location/Institution: Sydney, Australia

Summary: (To include comparison groups, outcomes, measures, notable limitations)
This study evaluated the effectiveness of the Peer Interpersonal Relatedness (PIR) program—in producing larger effects when used in conjunction with the Resourceful Adolescent Program-Adolescent (RAP-A). Whole classrooms of adolescent participants were assigned to 1 of 3 conditions: (a) RAP-A followed by PIR (i.e., RAP–PIR), (b) RAP-A followed by a placebo program (i.e., RAP-A–placebo), and (c) an assessment-only control. Measures utilized included the Reynolds Adolescent Depression Scale-2 (RADS-2), the Children’s Depression Inventory (CDI), the Psychological Sense of School Membership (PSSM), the Clinical Assessment of Interpersonal Relations (CAIR), the Multidimensional Students’ Life Satisfaction Scale (MSLSS), and the Diagnostic Interview Schedule for Children, Adolescents, and Parents (DISCAP). Results indicated across the intervention period, RAP-A did not significantly reduce depressive symptoms relative to those students not receiving this intervention. RAP-A followed by PIR did significantly reduce depressive symptoms relative to those students not receiving PIR. Across the 12-month follow-up, the between-group reductions in depressive symptoms were no longer significant. At follow-up, participants in the RAP-A–PIR condition had achieved significant increases in their school-related life satisfaction and significant increases in social functioning with peers relative to their peers in the other conditions. Limitations include the absence of a PIR–placebo condition, it is impossible to tell if the PIR itself or the RAP-A–PIR interaction was responsible for findings of this study; adolescents in the assessment-only control group did not participate in the RAP-A program, they interacted with other students in their grade who had received this training thus diluting the true effectiveness of the RAP-A program; and small sample size.

Length of postintervention follow-up: 12 months.

Additional References

Shochet, I., Hoge, R., & Wurfl, A. (2009). Building resilience in adolescents: The Resourceful Adolescent Programme (RAP). In K. Geldard (Ed.). Practical interventions for young people. Sage Publications Ltd. https://doi.org/10.4135/9781446269367.n3

Shochet, I. M., & Hoge, R. (2009). Resourceful Adolescent Program: A prevention and early intervention program for teenage depression In E. Essau (Ed.), Treatment of adolescent depression. Oxford University Press.

Shochet, I., Montague, R., & Ham, D.(2002). The Resourceful Adolescent Program: A universal approach to the prevention of depression in adolescents. In N. N. Singh, T. H. Ollendick, & A. N. Singh (Eds.), International perspectives on child and adolescent mental health (Vol. 2, pp. 213–236), Elsevier.

Contact Information

Ian Shochet
Title: PhD
Website: www.rap.qut.edu.au
Email:
Phone: (073) 138-4956

Date Research Evidence Last Reviewed by CEBC: June 2020

Date Program Content Last Reviewed by Program Staff: October 2020

Date Program Originally Loaded onto CEBC: October 2020