Resourceful Adolescent Program-Adolescent (RAP-A)

About This Program

Target Population: Adolescents between 11 and 15 years of age

For children/adolescents ages: 11 – 15

Program Overview

Resourceful Adolescent Program-Adolescent (RAP-A) was developed to meet the need for a universal resilience building program for teenagers which could be readily implemented in a school setting. A universal program targets all teenagers in a particular grade, as opposed to those at higher risk for depression (indicated or selective approaches) or a treatment group.

RAP-A is a positively focused program that consists of 11 sessions of approximately 50 minutes duration. The program is run with groups of adolescents varying in size from 8 to 16 students, usually as an integral part of the school curriculum (from grades 7 to 10). RAP-A attempts to integrate both cognitive-behavioral and interpersonal approaches to improve coping skills and build resilience to promote positive development.

Program Goals

The goals of Resourceful Adolescent Program (RAP-A) are:

  • Increase resilience to depression risk factors.
  • Identify individual strengths and existing resources.
  • Develop new strategies for increased coping ability.
  • Develop ability to self-manage and self-regulate in stressful situations.

Logic Model

The program representative did not provide information about a Logic Model for Resourceful Adolescent Program-Adolescent (RAP-A).

Essential Components

The essential components of Resourceful Adolescent Program (RAP-A) include:

  • RAP-A is a strength focused program that draws on the metaphor in the children's story the "Three Little Pigs," in which only the house made of bricks withstood the attacks of the Big Bad Wolf.
  • Each week, participating adolescents develop their own personal 'RAP-A house' by laying down different personal resource bricks (e.g., Personal Strength Bricks, Keeping Calm Bricks, Problem Solving Bricks). The cognitive-behavioral component provides the techniques of keeping calm, cognitive restructuring, and problem solving.
  • The interpersonal component stresses the importance of promoting harmony, and dealing with conflict and role disputes, by developing an understanding of the perspective of others.
  • The common thread that runs through the program is the teaching of techniques to maintain self-esteem in the face of a variety of stressors.
  • In the traditional RAP-A there are:
    • Eleven group sessions, conducted weekly for between 40 and 50 minutes during school class time.
    • One facilitator per group.
    • Recommended group size is 10–15 students, although many schools run the program in whole class groups.
  • Sessions are focused around seven major areas:
    • The recognition and affirmation of existing strengths and resources
    • Promoting self-management and self-regulation skills in the face of stress
    • Cognitive restructuring
    • Creating a personal problem solving model
    • Building and accessing psychological support networks
    • Considering the other's perspective
    • Keeping and making the peace
  • Initially RAP-A was designed as a universal intervention. It has also been adapted for targeted populations such as indigenous adolescents, young caregivers, and most recently, adolescents on the autism spectrum.
  • RAP-A is complemented by a parent program (RAP-P) which aims to help parents promote the optimal family environment for healthy adolescent development. RAP-P was not reviewed or rated by the CEBC as part of the RAP-A review.

Program Delivery

Child/Adolescent Services

Resourceful Adolescent Program-Adolescent (RAP-A) directly provides services to children/adolescents and addresses the following:

  • Adolescents between ages of 11 and 15 years old

Recommended Intensity:

One weekly 50-minute session; the program can also be delivered as two-hour sessions or as a residential camp format.

Recommended Duration:

11 weeks; the program can also be delivered in longer sessions over 6 weeks or at a residential camp over 3 days.

Delivery Settings

This program is typically conducted in a(n):

  • Community Daily Living Setting
  • Outpatient Clinic
  • Group or Residential Care
  • Justice Setting (Juvenile Detention, Jail, Prison, Courtroom, etc.)
  • School Setting (Including: Day Care, Day Treatment Programs, etc.)

Homework

This program does not include a homework component.

Resources Needed to Run Program

The typical resources for implementing the program are:

A private space to run a group of up to 15 participants. Some RAP-A sessions have a video component, so computer or projector is needed.

Manuals and Training

Prerequisite/Minimum Provider Qualifications

It is recommended that a person to have a tertiary degree (i.e., college degree) and work as one of the following:

  • Psychologists
  • Social workers
  • Occupational therapists
  • Psychiatrists
  • Mental Health Nurses
  • School counselors
  • Guidance officers
  • Chaplains
  • Teachers
  • Community Workers

However, it is recognized there are many youth and community workers with experience who do an excellent job implementing the program.

Manual Information

There is a manual that describes how to deliver this program.

Program Manual(s)

  • Shochet, I. M., & Wurfl, A. (2015). Resourceful Adolescent Program: Group leader's manual (2nd ed.). Queensland University of Technology.
  • Shochet, I. M., & Wurfl, A. (2015). Resourceful Adolescent Program: Participant's workbook (2nd ed.). Queensland University of Technology.

These can be accessed at www.rap.qut.edu.au or by emailing rap@qut.edu.au

Training Information

There is training available for this program.

Training Contact:
Training Type/Location:

Training is provided at our organization, at the trainee’s organization, and by Zoom for overseas participants.

Number of days/hours:
  • Onsite training is between 1 and 2 days depending on organization’s needs.
  • Zoom training is delivered through 3.5-hour sessions over 2 consecutive days.

Implementation Information

Pre-Implementation Materials

There are no pre-implementation materials to measure organizational or provider readiness for Resourceful Adolescent Program-Adolescent (RAP-A).

Formal Support for Implementation

There is formal support available for implementation of Resourceful Adolescent Program-Adolescent (RAP-A) as listed below:

Support is optional. Supervision of the first and/or second program delivery is provided, especially in the context of research. Supervision focuses on process issues during delivery and fidelity. In an international context, support would be provided over Zoom.

Fidelity Measures

There are fidelity measures for Resourceful Adolescent Program-Adolescent (RAP-A) as listed below:

Fidelity is measured via self-report integrity checklists and are available upon request.

Implementation Guides or Manuals

There are no implementation guides or manuals for Resourceful Adolescent Program-Adolescent (RAP-A).

Implementation Cost

There are no studies of the costs of Resourceful Adolescent Program-Adolescent (RAP-A).

Research on How to Implement the Program

Research has been conducted on how to implement Resourceful Adolescent Program-Adolescent (RAP-A) as listed below:

Cunningham, L., Shochet, I., Smith, C., & Wurfl, A. (2017). A qualitative evaluation of an innovative resilience-building camp for young carers. Child and Family Social Work, 22(2), 700–710. https://doi.org/10.1111/cfs.12286

Relevant Published, Peer-Reviewed Research

Child Welfare Outcome: Child/Family Well-Being

Shochet, I. M., Dadds, M. R., Holland, D., Whitefield, K., Harnett, P. H., & Osgarby, S. M. (2001). The efficacy of a universal school-based program to prevent adolescent depression. Journal of Clinical Child Psychology, 30, 303–315. https://doi.org/10.1207/S15374424JCCP3003_3

Type of Study: Randomized controlled trial
Number of Participants: 260

Population:

  • Age — 12–15 years (Mean=13.49 years)
  • Race/Ethnicity — Not specified
  • Gender — 53.46% Female and 46.54% Male
  • Status — Participants were Year 9 secondary school students.

Location/Institution: Brisbane, Australia

Summary: (To include basic study design, measures, results, and notable limitations)
This study evaluated whether Resourceful Adolescent Program-Adolescent (RAP-A), designed to prevent depression in adolescents, could be effectively implemented within the constraints of the school environment. Students were assigned to 1 of 3 groups: (a) RAP-A, an 11-session school-based resilience building program, as part of the school curriculum; (b) Resourceful Adolescent Program–Family (RAP–F), the same program as in RAP-A, but in which each student’s parents were also invited to participate in a 3-session parent program; and (c) Adolescent Watch, a comparison group in which adolescents simply completed the measures. Measures utilized included the Child Depression Inventory (CDI), the Reynolds Adolescent Depression Scale (RADS), and the Beck Hopelessness Scale (BHS). Results indicated adolescents in either of the RAP programs reported significantly lower levels of depressive symptomatology and hopelessness at postintervention and 10-month follow-up, compared with those in the comparison group. Adolescents also reported high satisfaction with the program. Limitations include reliance on self-reported measures of depression, small sample size, and length of follow-up.

Length of postintervention follow-up: 10 months.

Muris, P., Bogie, N., & Hoogsteder, A. (2001). Effects of an early intervention group program for anxious and depressed adolescents: A pilot study. Psychological Reports, 88(2), 481–482. https://doi.org/10.2466/pr0.2001.88.2.481

Type of Study: One-group pretest–posttest
Number of Participants: 8

Population:

  • Age — 13–18 years
  • Race/Ethnicity — Not specified
  • Gender — 5 Female and 3 Male
  • Status — Participants were adolescents with depressive symptoms.

Location/Institution: The Netherlands

Summary: (To include basic study design, measures, results, and notable limitations)
The purpose of this study was to test the efficacy of the Resourceful Adolescent Program-Adolescent (RAP-A). Measures utilized include the Spence Children's Anxiety Scale, the Children's Depression Inventory, and the Self-efficacy Questionnaire. Results compared preintervention and postintervention data and showed reductions in anxiety and depression scores and a concomitant increase in adolescents' self-efficacy. Limitations include lack of randomization of participants, small sample size, reliance on self-reported measures, and length of follow-up.

Length of postintervention follow-up: 1 week.

Merry, S., McDowell, H., Wild, C. J., Bir, J., & Cunliffe, R. (2004). A randomized placebo-controlled trial of a school-based depression prevention program. Journal of the American Academy of Child & Adolescent Psychiatry, 43(5), 538–547. https://doi.org/10.1097/00004583-200405000-00007

Type of Study: Randomized controlled trial
Number of Participants: 392

Population:

  • Age — 13–15 years
  • Race/Ethnicity — Not specified
  • Gender — Not specified
  • Status — Participants were adolescents with high anxious and/or depressive symptoms.

Location/Institution: Two schools in Auckland, New Zealand

Summary: (To include basic study design, measures, results, and notable limitations)
The purpose of this study was to conduct a placebo-controlled study of the effectiveness of a universal school-based depression prevention program. Students from two schools were randomized to Resourceful Adolescent Program - Kiwi (RAP-Kiwi) [same overall structure as Resourceful Adolescent Program – Adolescent (RAP-A)] and placebo programs run by teachers. Measures utilized included the Reynolds Adolescent Depression Scale (RADS) and the Beck Depression Inventory II (BDI-II). Results indicated that immediately after the intervention, depression scores were reduced significantly more by RAP-Kiwi than by placebo. Results also confirmed significant clinical benefit with an absolute risk reduction of 3% with the “number needed to treat” for short-term benefit of 33. Group differences in depression scores averaged across time to 18 months were significant on RADS but not on BDI-II. Retention rates were 91% at 6 months and 72% at 18 months. Limitations include the study was “singleblind” randomized controlled trial, using teachers who have no background of cognitive-behavioral therapy to deliver the program, and the study would also have been strengthened by depression ratings from independent evaluators blind to intervention status.

Length of postintervention follow-up: 6, 12, and 18 months.

Rivet-Duval, E., Heriot, S., & Hunt, C. (2011). Preventing adolescent depression in Mauritius: A universal school-based program. Child and Adolescent Mental Health, 16(2), 86–91. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1475-3588.2010.00584.x

Type of Study: Randomized controlled trial
Number of Participants: 160

Population:

  • Age — 12–16 years (Mean=13.7–14.2 years)
  • Race/Ethnicity — 59 Creole, 50 Hindu, 24 Muslim, 22 Chinese, and 5 European
  • Gender — 50% Male and 50% Females
  • Status — Participants were adolescents with high anxious and/or depressive symptoms.

Location/Institution: Mauritius

Summary: (To include basic study design, measures, results, and notable limitations)
This study evaluated the efficacy of the Resourceful Adolescent Program–Adolescent (RAP-A) depression program implemented by school teachers. Adolescents were randomly assigned to the RAP-A Group or wait-list. Measures utilized included the Reynolds Adolescent Depression Scale-2 (RADS-2), the Beck Hopelessness Scale (BHS) the Hopelessness Scale for Children, the Youth Coping Index (YCI), and the Rosenberg Self-Esteem Scale (RSE). Results indicated decreased depressive symptoms for the intervention condition were found post-intervention, but not at follow-up. Significant changes in self-esteem and coping skills were seen both postintervention and at the follow-up. Limitations include none of the measures had been previously used or validated in samples from Mauritius, small sample size, reliance on self-reported measures, and length of follow-up.

Length of postintervention follow-up: 6 months.

Stallard, P., Phillips, R., Montgomery, A. A., Spears, M., Anderson, R., Taylor, J., Araya, R., Lewis, G., Ukoumunne, O. C., Millings, A., Georgiou, L., Cook, E., & Sayal, K. (2013). A cluster randomised controlled trial to determine the clinical effectiveness and cost-effectiveness of classroom-based cognitive-behavioural therapy (CBT) in reducing symptoms of depression in high-risk adolescents. Health Technology Assessment (Winchester, England), 17(47). https://doi.org/10.3310/hta17470

Type of Study: Randomized controlled trial
Number of Participants: 5,030

Population:

  • Age — 12–16 years
  • Race/Ethnicity — 4,764 White and 266 Non-White
  • Gender — 2,931 Males and 2,099 Females
  • Status — Participants were high-risk adolescents with depression.

Location/Institution: 66 nondenominational comprehensive secondary schools in Bath and North East Somerset, Bristol, Wiltshire, Nottingham City and Nottinghamshire County

Summary: (To include basic study design, measures, results, and notable limitations)
The aims of this study are to investigate the clinical effectiveness and cost-effectiveness of Resourceful Adolescent Programme (RAP-UK) [same overall structure as Resourceful Adolescent Program – Adolescent (RAP-A)] in reducing symptoms of depression in high-risk adolescents. RAP-UK was compared with usual Personal, Social, and Health Education (PSHE) curriculum and attention control PSHE groups. Measures utilized included the Short Mood and Feelings Questionnaire (SMFQ), the Children's Automatic Thoughts Scale (CATS), the Rosenberg Self-Esteem Inventory, the Revised Child Anxiety and Depression Scale (RCADS), the School Connectedness Scale, the Attachment Questionnaire for Children, the Olweus Bully/Victim Questionnaire, the European Quality of Life-5 Dimensions (EQ-5D), the Client Service Receipt Inventory (CSRI), and the Family Affluence Scale. Results indicated SMFQ scores had decreased for high-risk adolescents in all trial arms at 12 months, but there was no difference between arms [RAP-UK vs. usual PSHE; classroom-based RAP-UK vs. attention control PSHE]. Costs of interventions per child were estimated at £41.96 for classroom-based CBT and £34.45 for attention control PSHE. Limitations include participating schools had a greater percentage of white students, were more academically able, and had fewer students eligible for free school meals than UK national averages and reliance on self-reported measures.

Length of postintervention follow-up: 12 months.

Rose, K., Hawes, D. J., & Hunt, C. J. (2014). Randomized controlled trial of a friendship skills intervention on adolescent depressive symptoms. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 82(3), 510–520. https://doi.org/10.1037/a0035827

Type of Study: Randomized controlled trial
Number of Participants: 210

Population:

  • Age — 9–14 years (Mean=12.22 years)
  • Race/Ethnicity — 64.8% Caucasian, 17.1% Asian, 11.4%
  • Gender — 56% Male and 44% Female
  • Status — Participants were adolescents in 6th and 7th grade secondary schools.

Location/Institution: Sydney, Australia

Summary: (To include basic study design, measures, results, and notable limitations)
This study evaluated the effectiveness of the Peer Interpersonal Relatedness (PIR) program—in producing larger effects when used in conjunction with the Resourceful Adolescent Program-Adolescent (RAP-A). Whole classrooms of adolescent participants were assigned to 1 of 3 conditions: (a) RAP-A followed by PIR (i.e., RAP–PIR), (b) RAP-A followed by a placebo program (i.e., RAP-A–placebo), and (c) an assessment-only control. Measures utilized included the Reynolds Adolescent Depression Scale-2 (RADS-2), the Children’s Depression Inventory (CDI), the Psychological Sense of School Membership (PSSM), the Clinical Assessment of Interpersonal Relations (CAIR), the Multidimensional Students’ Life Satisfaction Scale (MSLSS), and the Diagnostic Interview Schedule for Children, Adolescents, and Parents (DISCAP). Results indicated across the intervention period, RAP-A did not significantly reduce depressive symptoms relative to those students not receiving this intervention. RAP-A followed by PIR did significantly reduce depressive symptoms relative to those students not receiving PIR. Across the 12-month follow-up, the between-group reductions in depressive symptoms were no longer significant. At follow-up, participants in the RAP-A–PIR condition had achieved significant increases in their school-related life satisfaction and significant increases in social functioning with peers relative to their peers in the other conditions. Limitations include the absence of a PIR–placebo condition, it is impossible to tell if the PIR itself or the RAP-A–PIR interaction was responsible for findings of this study; adolescents in the assessment-only control group did not participate in the RAP-A program, they interacted with other students in their grade who had received this training thus diluting the true effectiveness of the RAP-A program; and small sample size.

Length of postintervention follow-up: 12 months.

Additional References

Shochet, I. M., & Hoge, R. (2009). Resourceful Adolescent Program: A prevention and early intervention program for teenage depression In E. Essau (Ed.), Treatment of adolescent depression. Oxford University Press.

Shochet, I., Hoge, R., & Wurfl, A. (2009). Building resilience in adolescents: The Resourceful Adolescent Programme (RAP). In K. Geldard (Ed.). Practical interventions for young people. Sage Publications Ltd. https://doi.org/10.4135/9781446269367.n3

Shochet, I., Montague, R., & Ham, D.(2002). The Resourceful Adolescent Program: A universal approach to the prevention of depression in adolescents. In N. N. Singh, T. H. Ollendick, & A. N. Singh (Eds.), International perspectives on child and adolescent mental health (Vol. 2, pp. 213–236), Elsevier.

Contact Information

Ian Shochet
Title: PhD
Website: www.rap.qut.edu.au
Email:
Phone: (073) 138-4956

Date Research Evidence Last Reviewed by CEBC: June 2020

Date Program Content Last Reviewed by Program Staff: March 2021

Date Program Originally Loaded onto CEBC: October 2020