Strong African American Families Program (SAAF)

About This Program

Target Population: African American youth, aged 10-14, and their parents/caregivers

For children/adolescents ages: 10 – 14

For parents/caregivers of children ages: 10 – 14

Program Overview

SAAF is a culturally tailored, family-centered intervention program designed to build on the strengths of African American families. The overarching goal of SAAF is to prevent substance abuse and other risky behavior among youth by strengthening positive family interactions, enhancing primary caregivers' efforts to help youth reach positive goals, and preparing youth for their teen years.

For parents, SAAF aims to strengthen parenting practices related to monitoring and supporting youth, articulating parental expectations for alcohol use, communicating with youth about sex, and promoting positive racial socialization. It also works to promote youths' ability to focus on goals for the future, resist involvement in risk behaviors, maintain negative images of risk behaviors and peers who engage in them, and accept parental influences.

Program Goals

The goals of Strong African American Families (SAAF) are:

  • For Youth:
    • Lower initiation of substance use
    • Fewer conduct problems
    • Delay in initiation of sex
    • Increase in positive racial identity
    • Increased level of future orientation
  • For Parent/Caregiver:
    • Decrease in maternal depression
    • Increase in positive racial identity
    • Increase in quality and quantity of parent/child communication

    Logic Model

    The program representative did not provide information about a Logic Model for Strong African American Families Program (SAAF).

    Essential Components

    The essential components of Strong African American Families (SAAF) include:

    • Family-based: Parents/caregivers and youth in the program together
    • Culturally specific: Designed for African American families (e.g., parenting practices, content to address different ways of dealing with discrimination, activities to build cultural pride)
    • Group-based: Designed for up to 12 families per group with recommended minimum of 6 families to successfully facilitate group discussions and activities
    • Modular: Each SAAF Session includes 3 "modules" – Youth, Caregiver and Family:
      • 1st hour: Youth and Caregiver modules run concurrently with activities, discussion, and skill-building lessons in separate youth and adult groups
      • 2nd hours: Family module with all families together with activities for individual family units as well as large group activities
    • Interactive methods of content delivery: DVDs, group discussion, brainstorming, role-playing, and games utilized to deliver the content
    • 3-person facilitator team: 1 facilitator for the caregiver group and 2 facilitators for the youth group then they all work together to lead the family module
    • Scripted: Manual is written such that facilitators know exactly what should be said (or paraphrased) to ensure that the main concepts are delivered over the 7 sessions
    • Facilitator Training: Reviews of all program activities as well as provides an opportunity for facilitators to practice delivering specific content; also allows for discussion about adaptations/modifications based on specific needs, concerns, and priorities of the organization and/or the target population
    • Creed: Each individual module (Youth, Caregivers, and Family) concludes with the group members reciting a Creed which affirms cultural strength, perseverance, and pride
    • Strengths-based: Rather than telling caregivers what they should do, SAAF presents different strategies and encourages discussion about the pros and cons of the strategy (e.g., communication, punishment, responding to racism)
    • Empathy-building: Activities help parents and youth understand things from each other's perspective and build empathy for each other

    Program Delivery

    Child/Adolescent Services

    Strong African American Families Program (SAAF) directly provides services to children/adolescents and addresses the following:

    • Experiencing or have the potential to experience aggressive behaviors, academic challenges, self-esteem issues, involvement in risky behaviors

    Parent/Caregiver Services

    Strong African American Families Program (SAAF) directly provides services to parents/caregivers and addresses the following:

    • Parent/caregiver of preteen or early teen youth experiencing or who have the potential to experience aggressive behaviors, academic challenges, self-esteem issues, involvement in risky behaviors

    Recommended Intensity:

    Weekly 2-hour sessions

    Recommended Duration:

    7 weeks ideally

    Delivery Settings

    This program is typically conducted in a(n):

    • Community Daily Living Setting
    • Community-based Agency / Organization / Provider
    • School Setting (Including: Day Care, Day Treatment Programs, etc.)

    Homework

    This program does not include a homework component.

    Languages

    Strong African American Families Program (SAAF) does not have materials available in a language other than English.

    Resources Needed to Run Program

    The typical resources for implementing the program are:

    • At least two rooms are needed — one room should be large enough to accommodate the family session with up to 30 individuals and should be used for the Youth activities as the youth group needs more room than the caregiver group
    • Equipment to show a DVD (e.g., TV/DVD player; computer with projector) for each room
    • Three facilitators

    Manuals and Training

    Prerequisite/Minimum Provider Qualifications

    • Education — Ideally, facilitators have some level of higher education (e.g., some college courses).
    • Facilitation Experience — Facilitators should have some experience with group facilitation and/or teaching a structured class/program.
    • Cultural competence — Facilitators should have experience working with African American youth and their caregivers. It is important that facilitators are able to appreciate the strengths as well as concerns of the African American community; however, being of African descent is not a requirement.
    • Training — Facilitators are required to attend the 3-day training conducted by SAAF Master Trainers to become Certified SAAF Facilitators.

    Manual Information

    There is a manual that describes how to deliver this program.

    Training Information

    There is training available for this program.

    Training Contact:
    • Tracy Anderson, SAAF Dissemination Coordinator
      Center for Family Research-University of Georgia

      phone: (706) 425-2992
    Training Type/Location:

    The training typically occurs on-site or in another local location of the organization/agency that is hosting the training. A minimum of 5 training participants; a maximum of 30. The training must be conducted by SAAF Master Trainers in collaboration with the Center for Family Research.

    Number of days/hours:

    Three 8-hour days

    Implementation Information

    Pre-Implementation Materials

    There are pre-implementation materials to measure organizational or provider readiness for Strong African American Families Program (SAAF) as listed below:

    An Agency Readiness Assessment is available to organizations that are considering adopting the SAAF Program. It is a series of questions (Yes/No) that address fit with the organization's culture and goals, access to the target population, implementation needs, and funding (start-up and implementation).

    Organizations interested in receiving the Assessment should contact Tracy Anderson, the SAAF Dissemination Coordinator, at tnander@uga.edu or (706) 425-2992.

    Formal Support for Implementation

    There is formal support available for implementation of Strong African American Families Program (SAAF) as listed below:

    The Dissemination Coordinator is available for ongoing technical assistance regarding the curriculum as well as implementation issues. The adopting agency can also arrange to receive a site visit (fidelity visit) at an additional cost. This site visit is designed to provide the site with feedback regarding fidelity and offer suggestions for future implementation.

    Fidelity Measures

    There are fidelity measures for Strong African American Families Program (SAAF) as listed below:

    Organizations that purchase the program receive a Fidelity Manual. This manual includes 21 Adherence Checklists, which correspond to each of the 3 modules in each of the 7 sessions of the program as well as instructions for using the forms. These measures are not publicly available and are only provided in whole to organizations that have adopted SAAF. A sample of the form can be provided by request to Tracy Anderson, SAAF Dissemination Coordinator at tnander@uga.edu or (706) 425-2992.

    Implementation Guides or Manuals

    There are implementation guides or manuals for Strong African American Families Program (SAAF) as listed below:

    Organizations that purchase the program receive a SAAF Site Resource Manual. This manual includes recommendations for implementation as well as information regarding sustainability. This manual is only available to organizations that have adopted SAAF. A general implementation plan can be provided by request to Tracy Anderson, SAAF Dissemination Coordinator at tnander@uga.edu or (706) 425-2992.

    Research on How to Implement the Program

    Research has been conducted on how to implement Strong African American Families Program (SAAF) as listed below:

    Kogan, S. M., Lei, M.-K., Brody, G. H., Futris, T. G., Sperr, M., & Anderson, T. (2016). Implementing family-centered prevention in rural African American communities: A randomized effectiveness trial of the Strong African American Families program. Prevention Science, 17(2), 248–258. https://doi.org/10.1007/s11121-015-0614-3

    Relevant Published, Peer-Reviewed Research

    Child Welfare Outcome: Child/Family Well-Being

    Brody, G. H., Murry, V. M., Gerrard, M., Gibbons, F. X., Molgaard, V., McNair, L., Brown, A. C., Wills, T. A., Spoth, R. L., Luo, Z., Chen, Y.-f., & Neubaum-Carlan, E. (2004). The Strong African American Families Program: Translating research into prevention programming. Child Development, 75(3), 900–917. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1467-8624.2004.00713.x

    Type of Study: Randomized controlled trial
    Number of Participants: 332

    Population:

    • Age — Children: 11 years, Parents: Mean=38.1-39.4 years
    • Race/Ethnicity — 100% African American
    • Gender — Children: Not specified, Parents: 100% Female
    • Status — Participants were parents and children from lower socioeconomic status.

    Location/Institution: 8 rural counties in Georgia

    Summary: (To include basic study design, measures, results, and notable limitations)
    The purpose of this study was to contrast families who took part in the Strong African American Families Program (SAAF) with control families. The eight county units were randomly assigned to either the control or the SAAF condition. Measures utilized include the Racial Socialization Scale and the Parental Communication About Sex Scale. Results indicate that families who participated in SAAF experienced greater changes from pretest to posttest in regulated, communicative parenting and youth protective factors compared with control-group families. Limitations include fathers rarely participated in the prevention program even though they were invited to do so, generalizability to rural African American families in other geographic regions or from dissimilar socioeconomic backgrounds, and length of follow-up.

    Length of postintervention follow-up: 3 months.

    Brody, G. H., McBride Murry, V., McNair, L., Chen, Y. F., Gibbons, F. X., Gerrard, M., & Ashby Wills, T. (2005). Linking changes in parenting to parent–child relationship quality and youth self‐control: The Strong African American Families Program. Journal of Research on Adolescence, 15(1), 47–69. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1532-7795.2005.00086.x

    Type of Study: Randomized controlled trial
    Number of Participants: 332

    Population:

    • Age — Children: 11 years; Parents: Not specified
    • Race/Ethnicity — 100% African American
    • Gender — Not specified
    • Status — Participants were parents and children from lower socioeconomic status.

    Location/Institution: 8 rural county units in Georgia

    Summary: (To include basic study design, measures, results, and notable limitations)
    This study uses the same sample as Brody et al. (2004). The purpose of this study was to contrast families who took part in the Strong African American Families Program (SAAF) with control families. Eight county units were randomly assigned to either SAAF or the control. Measures utilized include the Racial Socialization Scale, the Parental Communication About Sex Scale, the Interaction Behavior Questionnaire, the Carver Social Support Scales, and the Children’s Self-Control Scale. Results indicate that SAAF-induced changes in parenting practices that include high levels of involved-vigilant parenting (monitoring, consistent use of inductive discipline), racial socialization, communication about sex, and clear expectations for alcohol use were linked with positive changes in responsive–supportive parent–child relationships and youth self-control. Limitations include fathers rarely participated in the prevention program even though they were invited to do so, generalizability due to ethnicity, and length of follow-up.

    Length of postintervention follow-up: 3 months.

    Brody, G. H., Murry, V. M., Gerrard, M., Gibbons, F. X., McNair, L., Brown, A. C., Wills, T. A., Molgaard, V., Spoth, R. L., Luo, Z., & Chen, Y.-f. (2006). The Strong African American Families Program: Prevention of youths' high-risk behavior and a test of a model of change. Journal of Family Psychology, 20(1), 1-11. https://doi.org/10.1037/0893-3200.20.1.1

    Type of Study: Randomized controlled trial
    Number of Participants: 332

    Population:

    • Age — Children: 11 years; Parents: Not specified
    • Race/Ethnicity — 100% African American
    • Gender — Children: 54% Female; Parents: Not specified
    • Status — Participants were parents and children from lower socioeconomic status.

    Location/Institution: 8 rural counties in Georgia

    Summary: (To include basic study design, measures, results, and notable limitations)
    This study uses the same sample as Brody et al. (2004). The purpose of this study was to contrast families who took part in the Strong African American Families Program (SAAF) with control families. Eight county units were randomly assigned to either SAAF or the control. Measures utilized include the Racial Socialization Scale and the Parental Communication About Sex Scale. Results indicate that families who participated in SAAF experienced increases over time in regulated, communicative parenting; increases in targeted parenting behaviors, according to youths’ reports; and low rates of high-risk behavior initiation among youths. Limitations include fathers rarely participated in the prevention program even though they were invited to do so, generalizability due to ethnicity, and length of follow-up.

    Length of postintervention follow-up: 3 months.

    Gerrard, M., Gibbons, F. X., Brody, G. H., Murry, V. M., Cleveland, M. J., & Wills, T. A. (2006). A theory-based dual-focus alcohol intervention for preadolescents: The Strong African American Families program. Psychology of Addictive Behaviors, 20(2), 185–195. https://doi.org/10.1037/0893-164X.20.2.185

    Type of Study: Randomized controlled trial
    Number of Participants: 281

    Population:

    • Age — Children: 10-12 years (Mean=11.2 years); Primary caregivers: Not specified
    • Race/Ethnicity — 100% African American
    • Gender — Children: 47% Male and 53% Female; Primary caregivers: 91% Female and 9% Male
    • Status — Participants were parents and children from lower socioeconomic status.

    Location/Institution: 8 rural counties in Georgia

    Summary: (To include basic study design, measures, results, and notable limitations)
    This study uses the same sample as Brody et al. (2004). The purpose of this study was to examined mediators of the Strong African American Families Program (SAAF) intended to delay the onset of alcohol use and reduce alcohol consumption among rural African American youths. Eight county units were randomly assigned to either SAAF or the control. Measures utilized include scales to assess prototype images and similarity, alcohol willingness, intervention-targeted parenting behaviors, nurturant-involved parenting, parental monitoring of child behavior, expectations about alcohol, alcohol intentions, and alcohol consumption. Results indicated that that changes in consumption 2 years after the SAAF were mediated through 2 different paths, a social reaction path and a reasoned/intention path. The social reaction path provided evidence that compared to the control condition, the SAAF decreased children’s willingness to drink by making their images of drinkers less favorable. The reasoned/intention path provided evidence that the SAAF influenced the children’s intentions to drink by increasing targeted parenting behaviors related to alcohol. Limitations include having self-report measures, generalizability to other populations since this study was conducted on a specific group, low reliabilities in some of the constructs, and no validity data on parenting behavior.

    Length of postintervention follow-up: 2 years

    Murry, V. M., Berkel, C., Brody, G. H., Gibbons, M., & Gibbons, F. X. (2007). The Strong African American Families program: Longitudinal pathways to sexual risk reduction. Journal of Adolescent Health, 41(4), 333–342. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jadohealth.2007.04.003

    Type of Study: Randomized controlled trial
    Number of Participants: 284

    Population:

    • Age — Children: 11 years; Parents: Mean=38.1–39.4 years
    • Race/Ethnicity — 100% African American
    • Gender — Children: Not specified; Parents: 100% Female
    • Status — Participants were parents and children from lower socioeconomic status.

    Location/Institution: 9 rural counties in Georgia

    Summary: (To include basic study design, measures, results, and notable limitations)
    This study uses the same sample as Brody et al. (2004). The purpose of this study is to identify the mechanisms by which Strong African American Families Program (SAAF) increases in adaptive parenting were associated with a reduction in sexual risk behavior among rural African American adolescents across a 29-month period. Counties were similar in poverty rates and proportions of African American residents and were randomly assigned to SAAF or control condition (educational pamphlets about health and development). Measures utilized for parenting included scales for involvement, communication about sex, clear expectations, racial socialization, racial identity, self-esteem, body image, scales for desire for peer group acceptance, impression management, sexual intention, sexual willingness, and sexual behavior. Results indicate that compared with controls, parents who participated in SAAF reported increased adaptive universal and racially specific parenting. Furthermore, intervention-induced changes in these parenting behaviors were associated indirectly with sexual risk behavior through adolescent self-pride, peer orientation, and sexual intent. Limitations include limited sample size, scheduling issues for the group meetings, and lack of participation from secondary caregivers.

    Length of postintervention follow-up: 29 months.

    Beach, S. R. H., Kogan, S. M., Brody, G. H., Chen, Y. -f., Lei, M. -K., & Murry, V. M. (2008). Change in caregiver depression as a function of the Strong African American Families Program. Journal of Family Psychology, 22(2), 241–252. https://doi.org/10.1037/0893-3200.22.2.241

    Type of Study: Randomized controlled trial
    Number of Participants: 167

    Population:

    • Age — Children: Mean=11.2 years, Parents: 35-37 years
    • Race/Ethnicity — 100% African American
    • Gender — Children: Not specified, Parents: 100% Female
    • Status — Participants were parents and children from lower socioeconomic status.

    Location/Institution: 9 rural counties of Georgia

    Summary: (To include basic study design, measures, results, and notable limitations)
    This study uses a subsample from Brody et al. (2004). The purpose of this study was to examine the effects of the Strong African American Families Program (SAAF) on a subset of 167 families in which the primary caregivers demonstrated elevated levels of depressive symptoms at pretest as indicated by a score of 16 or higher on the Center for Epidemiologic Studies–Depression (CES–D) scale. The eight county-units were randomly assigned to either the control or SAAF condition, four units per condition. Measures utilized include the CES–D, the Perceived Competence Scale for Children, and the Children’s Self-Control Scale. Results indicate at 2-year follow-up caregivers with CES–D scores of 16 or higher, the SAAF program’s effect was significant in reducing depressive symptoms, enhancing regulated-communicative parenting, and increasing youth intrapersonal competencies. Limitations include reliance on self-reported measures and may not be generalizable to rural African American families in other geographic regions or from dissimilar socioeconomic backgrounds.

    Length of postintervention follow-up: 2 years.

    Brody, G. H., Kogan, S. M., Chen, Y.-f., & Murry, V. M. (2008). Long-term effects of the Strong African American Families Program on youths’ conduct problems. Journal of Adolescent Health, 43(5), 474–481. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jadohealth.2008.04.016

    Type of Study: Randomized controlled trial
    Number of Participants: 667

    Population:

    • Age — Children: Mean=11.2 years, Parents: 37-39 years
    • Race/Ethnicity — 100% African American
    • Gender — Children: 53% Female, Parents: Not specified
    • Status — Participants were parents and children from lower socioeconomic status.

    Location/Institution: 8 rural counties in Georgia

    Summary: (To include basic study design, measures, results, and notable limitations)
    The purpose of this study was to determine whether the Strong African American Families Program (SAAF), a 7-week family skills training designed to deter alcohol use, also prevented conduct problems. Randomization occurred at the county level and participant level. Eight county-units were randomly assigned to either the control or the SAAF condition, four per condition. Additionally, participants and their primary caregivers were randomly selected from public school lists of fifth-grade students and randomly assigned to the intervention or SAAF condition. Measures utilized include the National Youth Survey, Humphrey’s Self-Control Inventory, Racial Socialization Scale, and the Rosenberg Self-Esteem Measure. Results indicate that compared with adolescents in the control condition, fewer youth in the SAAF group increased their involvement in conduct problems over time. Limitations include reliance on self-reported measures, male caregivers rarely participated in the program (even though they were invited to do so), and results may not be generalizable to rural African American families in other geographic regions or from dissimilar socioeconomic backgrounds.

    Length of postintervention follow-up: 1 year, 5 months.

    Murry, V. M., McNair, L. D., Myers, S. S., Chen, E., & Brody, G. H. (2014). Intervention induced changes in perceptions of parenting and risk opportunities among rural African American. Journal of Child and Family Studies, 23(2), 422-436. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10826-013-9714-5

    Type of Study: Randomized controlled trial
    Number of Participants: 671 families

    Population:

    • Age — Children: Mean=11.2 years; Parents: Mean=38.1 years
    • Race/Ethnicity — 100% African American
    • Gender — Children: 54% Female; Parents: 100% Female
    • Status — Participants were parents and children from lower socioeconomic status.

    Location/Institution: Rural Georgia

    Summary: (To include basic study design, measures, results, and notable limitations)
    This study uses a subsample from Brody et al. (2004). The purpose of this study was to examine the effect of the Strong African American Families Program (SAAF) on the parenting practices and the active role of youths in explaining avoidance of risky sexual activities and alcohol use of rural African American youth as they transition into adolescence. Families were randomly assigned to SAAF or a control condition. Measures utilized include the Parental Communication about Sex Scale and the Racial Socialization Scale. Results indicate that rural African American families who participated in SAAF experienced increases in both parent and youth reports of regulated-communicative parenting, which in turn increased youth’s avoidance of risk opportunity situations and engagement in risk behavior. Limitations include reliance on self-reported measures, male caregivers rarely participated in the program (even though they were invited to do so), and results may not be generalizable to rural African American families in other geographic regions or from dissimilar socioeconomic backgrounds.

    Length of postintervention follow-up: 65 months.

    Brody, G. H., Yu, T., Chen, E., Beach, S. R. H., & Miller, G. E. (2016). Family-centered prevention ameliorates the longitudinal association between risky family processes and epigenetic aging. Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry, 57(5), 566–574. https://doi.org/10.1111/jcpp.12495

    Type of Study: Randomized controlled trial
    Number of Participants: 399

    Population:

    • Age — Children: Mean=11.61-11.73 years; Parent: 37.56-37.57 years
    • Race/Ethnicity — 100% African American
    • Gender — Children: 218 Female and 181 Male; Parent: Not specified
    • Status — Participants were parents and children from lower socioeconomic status.

    Location/Institution: 9 rural counties in Georgia

    Summary: (To include basic study design, measures, results, and notable limitations)
    This study utilizes information from Brody et al. (2004). The purpose of this study was to determine whether the Strong African American Families Program (SAAF) heightened parental depressive symptoms would forecast accelerated epigenetic aging for youths. Measures utilized include the Center for Epidemiologic Studies–Depression scale (CES–D) and blood drawn samples. Results indicated that intervention effects on reductions in harsh parenting accounted for the association between parental depression levels and slower epigenetic aging among offspring. Limitations include SAAF trial was not designed with epigenetic aging as an endpoint, may not be generalizable to rural African American families in other geographic regions or from dissimilar socioeconomic backgrounds, and lack of follow-up.

    Length of postintervention follow-up: None.

    Kogan, S. M., Lei, M.-K., Brody, G. H., Futris, T. G., Sperr, M., & Anderson, T. (2016). Implementing family-centered prevention in rural African American communities: A randomized effectiveness trial of the Strong African American Families program. Prevention Science, 17(2), 248–258. https://doi.org/10.1007/s11121-015-0614-3

    Type of Study: Randomized controlled trial
    Number of Participants: 465

    Population:

    • Age — Children: 11 years; Parents: Mean=38.1-39.4 years
    • Race/Ethnicity — 100% African American
    • Gender — Children: Not specified; Parents: 100% Mothers
    • Status — Participants were parents and children from lower socioeconomic status.

    Location/Institution: 9 rural counties in Georgia

    Summary: (To include basic study design, measures, results, and notable limitations)
    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness of the Strong African American Families Program (SAAF) to (a) be delivered with high levels of program adherence and (b) deter preadolescent youth’s risk behavior vulnerability by enhancing intervention-targeted youth and family protective processes. Participants were randomly assigned to SAAF or to a waitlist control group for 1 year. Measures utilized include the Racial Socialization Scale, the Tolerance for Deviance Scale, the Interaction Behavior Questionnaire, and the Parental Communication About Sex Scale. Results indicate significant program effects on intervention-targeted parenting practices, youth self-regulatory processes, and problem behavior vulnerability indirectly via effects on targeted parenting and youth processes. Limitations include waitlist design precluded long-term follow-up and examination of behavioral outcomes, reliance on self-reported measures and length of follow-up.

    Length of postintervention follow-up: 3 months.

    Brody, G. H., Yu, T., Miller, G. E., Ehrlich, K. B., & Chen, E. (2019). Preventive parenting intervention during childhood and young black adults’ unhealthful behaviors: A randomized controlled trial. Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry, 60(1), 63–71. https://doi.org/10.1111/jcpp.12968

    Type of Study: Randomized controlled trial
    Number of Participants: 517 families

    Population:

    • Age — Children: Mean=11.2 years; Parents: Not specified
    • Race/Ethnicity — 100% African American
    • Gender — Children: 46% Female; Parents: Not specified
    • Status — Participants were parents and children from lower socioeconomic status.

    Location/Institution: Rural communities in Georgia

    Summary: (To include basic study design, measures, results, and notable limitations)
    This study uses sample population from Brody et al. (2004). The purpose of this study was to determine whether participation in the Strong African American Families Program (SAAF), a preventive intervention designed to enhance supportive parenting, can reduce drug use and body mass index (BMI) in young Black adults from disadvantaged neighborhoods. Black parents and their children were assigned randomly to the SAAF prevention trial or a control condition. Measures utilized include the US Census Bureau’s American Community Survey and scales to assess neighborhood socioeconomic status disadvantages, young adult body mass index and drug use, prevention status and gender and supportive parenting. Results indicate significant three-way interactions were detected among neighborhood disadvantage, prevention condition, and gender for BMI and substance use. Living in a disadvantaged neighborhood during adolescence was associated with increased drug use among young men in the control group but not among those in the SAAF condition. Neighborhood disadvantage was associated with elevated BMI among young women in the control group, but not in the SAAF condition. Limitations include did not assess BMI at the age 11 pretest; no exclusionary criteria, such as pregnancy, were provided for the measurement of BMI; and generalizability to other regions.

    Length of postintervention follow-up: 3 and 6 years.

    Kogan, S. M., Bae, D., Lei, M.-K., & Brody, G. H. (2019). Family-centered alcohol use prevention for African American adolescents: A randomized clinical trial. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 87(12), 1085–1092. https://doi.org/10.1037/ccp0000448

    Type of Study: Randomized controlled trial
    Number of Participants: 472 youth and their caregivers

    Population:

    • Age — Children: Mean=11.61 years; Parents: Mean=37.2 years
    • Race/Ethnicity — Children: 100% African American; Parents: Not specified
    • Gender — Children: 51% Female; Parents: Not specified
    • Status — Participants were parents and children from lower socioeconomic status.

    Location/Institution: 8 rural counties in Georgia

    Summary: (To include basic study design, measures, results, and notable limitations)
    This study uses the sample from Brody et al. (2004). The purpose of this study was to test the efficacy of the Strong African American Families Program (SAAF), an alcohol use prevention program. Families were assigned randomly to receive SAAF or a no-treatment control. Measures utilized include the Involved-Vigilant Parenting scale and the Tolerance for Deviance scale. Results indicate a large treatment effect on slowed growth in alcohol use emerged. Dose-response analyses in the Complier Average Causal Effect (CACE) models revealed a medium-sized effect when participants attended at least 5 of the 7 sessions offered. Limitations include self-reports of alcohol and generalizability of effects to nonrural youth and those at elevated risk for substance use.

    Length of postintervention follow-up: 10, 22, and 34 months.

    Brody, G. H., Yu, T., Miller, G. E., & Chen, E. (2020). A family‐centered prevention ameliorates the associations of low self‐control during childhood with employment income and poverty status in young African American adults. Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry, 61(4), 425–435. https://doi.org/10.1111/jcpp.13139

    Type of Study: Randomized controlled trial
    Number of Participants: 381 families

    Population:

    • Age — Children: 11 years; Parents: Not specified
    • Race/Ethnicity — 100% African American
    • Gender — Children: 59% Female; Parents: Not specified
    • Status — Participants were parents and children from lower socioeconomic status.

    Location/Institution: Rural Georgia

    Summary: (To include basic study design, measures, results, and notable limitations)
    This study uses sample from Brody et al. (2004). The purpose of this study was to gain a further understanding of the intergenerational continuity of poverty by (a) examining the likelihood that children with low levels of self-control at age 11 earn less employment income and are more likely to live in poverty 14 years later, at age 25; and (b) determining, via the Strong African American Families Program (SAAF) preventive intervention, whether enhancing supportive parenting during childhood will ameliorate these associations. Parents and their children were randomly assigned to participate in the SAAF program or a control condition. Measures utilized include the MacArthur Reactive Responding scale and scales to assess intervention status and gender, family socioeconomic status disadvantage, child self-control, supportive parenting, harsh parenting, and young adult employment income and poverty status. Results indicate significant two-way interactions were detected between children’s self-control and prevention condition for employment income and poverty status. Low self-control at age 11 forecast less employment income and a greater likelihood of living in poverty among children in the control condition, but not among low self-control SAAF participants. Mediated-moderation analyses confirmed that enhanced supportive parenting accounted for SAAF’s effects on employment income and poverty status. Limitations include the SAAF trial began when the participants were 11 years of age and was not designed with young adult employment income and poverty status as endpoints, the findings’ generalizability must be determined with other groups living in rural and nonrural areas, and the study sample included somewhat more female than male youth.

    Length of postintervention follow-up: Strong African American Families (SAAF) program

    Additional References

    Murry, V. M., & Brody, G. H. (2004). Partnering with community stakeholders: Engaging rural African American families in basic research and the Strong African American Families preventive intervention program. Journal of Marital and Family Therapy, 30(3), 113–129. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1752-0606.2004.tb01240.x

    Smith, K. (2004, December). Strong families equal bright futures. Georgia Magazine, 30-33.

    Contact Information

    Tracy Anderson, PhD
    Agency/Affiliation: Center for Family Research-UGA
    Website: www.cfr.uga.edu
    Email:
    Phone: (706) 425-2992
    Fax: (706) 425-2985

    Date Research Evidence Last Reviewed by CEBC: September 2021

    Date Program Content Last Reviewed by Program Staff: April 2016

    Date Program Originally Loaded onto CEBC: May 2016